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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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PSYC12 - Bodenhausen & Macrae, 1996
Role of cognitive miser = engaging only in the amount of thought necessary to produce an apparently
adequate understanding of others
Stereotypes = automatic, occur without awareness
Cognitive processes are said to be automatic when they occur without the perceiver's conscious intent or
awareness of them, without the perceiver's ability to control them, or with an efficiency that requires little
investment of the perceiver's limited cognitive resources
Personal prejudices (e.g., racial prejudice) may make certain bases for social categorization chronically
salient, so when members of these targeted categories are encountered, they tend to be categorized routinely
in terms of this particular group membership rather than other equally applicable categories
once stereotypic expectations are formed, they tend to bias subsequent information processing in a
confirmatory manner
when people are committed to egalitarian, nonprejudiced standards and their thoughts, feelings, or behavior
seem to violate these standards, they tend to become self-focused and direct effort at reducing this
discrepancy
low-prejudice persons feel bad when their reactions to out-group members contravene their own
nonprejudiced standards, so they are motivated to avoid reacting in stereotypic or prejudiced ways
In order to self regulate in making stereotypes, a possible strategy is simply to make direct adjustments to
one's judgments and conclusions in the direction opposite to the presumed bias
Wegner et.al model of stereotype suppression = starts with the realization that for any control process to
be effective, it must be able both to test the status of the environment and to operate on the environment
when the test process yields less than satisfactory results
Monitoring process = automatic, operating process = effortful, therefore
For example, Wegner (1994) reviews evidence from studies of (1) attempts to concentrate, (2) attempts to
control one's mood, (3) attempts to relax, (4) attempts to control pain, (5) attempts to fall asleep, and many
others
Time pressure, distraction and preoccupation, affective states, and even alcohol are factors that may impair
thought control by reducing the availability of attentional resources needed to inhibit unwanted thoughts
As long as the operating process is in place and functioning, mental control can often be successfully
accomplished, but if the effortful operating process is impeded, suspended, or abandoned, the unchecked
monitoring process can produce hyperaccessibility of unwanted mental contents, setting the stage for
counterintentional reactions
Social perceivers can successfully inhibit stereotypic responses while they are actively striving to do so, but
once they stop making this effort, the stereotypes return to affect their thoughts and actions to an even
greater degree
www.notesolution.com
While the operating process is working, it can keep the unwanted thoughts successfully out of awareness,
but if it is interrupted by a cognitive load, or if it simply recedes or becomes inactive because of diminishing
motivation to engage in suppression, then rebound effects can begin to emerge
telling people that they must justify their judgments of an out-group member may instill a concern about
being labeled "prejudiced" that results in conscious attempts to avoid stereotypes rather than conscious
attempts to be as systematic and thorough as possible.
Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: THE IAT TEST
IAT measures 2 target concepts that appear in a 2 choice task and the attribute in a 2nd task
**know what the procedure/design of the IAT is
Implicit attitudes are manifest as actions or judgments that are under the control of automatically activated
evaluation, without the performer's awareness of that causation
Seeks to measure implicit attitudes by measuring their underlying automatic evaluation
IAT may reveal attitudes and other automatic associations even for people who prefer not to express those
attitudes
IAT assesses the association between a target-concept discrimination and an attribute dimension
The procedure starts with the introduction of the target-concept discrimination. (eg. First names that is
recognizable as being attributed to Black/White)
Respond one category to be responded by left hand/other by right hand
Then introduce attribute dimension form of a 2 category discrimination as well (eg.pleasant/unpleasant)
www.notesolution.com
3rd step - the two dimensions are superimposed, in which stimuli for target and attribute discriminations
appear on alternate trials
4th step the respondent learns a reversal of response assignments for the target discrimination
5th (final) step combines the attribute discrimination (not changed in response assignments) with this
reversed target discrimination
An IAT effect is defined as the difference in mean latency between these two conditions (non-compatible
minus compatible)
In Experiment 1, IAT effects indicating more positive attitudes toward flowers than insects or toward
musical instruments than weapons were expected and were also quite clearly obtained. That is, subjects
performed faster for flower + pleasant or instrument + pleasant combinations than for insect + pleasant or
weapon + pleasant
Better performance in the flower + pleasant condition than in the insect + pleasant condition is taken to
indicate a stronger association between flowers and pleasant meaning
More favorable feelings toward flowers and instruments vs. insects and weapons
Explicit measures for these conditions were weakly correlated compared with implicit attitude scores
Compatible task combinations were performed rapidly vs. non-compatible task combinations were performed
slowly
Experiment 2's data was that ethnically Korean subjects would find it more difficult to perform the Japanese
+ pleasant than the Korean + pleasant combination and that the reverse should be true for ethnically
Japanese subjects
There were no other significant effects in the design that included also Japanese name length (first vs.
second sub experiment) and order of administration of the task combinations
The IAT effect was very similar in magnitude for the first sub experiment with full length Japanese names)
and the second one with truncated Japanese names
Only the language and family measures discriminated Japanese American from Korean American subjects
with greater effect sizes
Overall, in Experiment 2, it can be seen that the IAT was most effective in diagnosing ethnicity for subjects
who were highly involved with their Asian American culture. These findings indicate that the IAT is
sensitive to the expected covariation of positivity of ethnic-name-to evaluation associations with level of
exposure to the culture of one's ethnic group
Experiment 3 = used the IAT procedure to measure an implicit attitude that might not readily be detected
through explicit self-report measures. Experiment 3's IAT method combined the tasks of classifying Black
versus White names and discriminating pleasant versus unpleasant word meanings
Except for the replacement of Japanese and Korean names with Black and White names, Experiment 3 was
virtually identical to Experiment 2. Experiment 3 also contained two subexperiments, the first using male
names and the second using female names
Feeling thermometer and semantic differential measures were used (similar to prev. 2 experiments)
Results: Whites showed an implicit attitude difference between the Black and White racial categories
There was a faster response between White and pleasant than for Black and pleasant
All 3 experiments showed that IAT measures can affectively measure implicit attitudes & are highly
sensitive to evaluative discriminations
IAT measures & self-report measures provide important indications that the IAT may be more resistant to
self-presentational factors than are the explicit measures.
The much greater variation across experiments in effect sizes of explicit measures, relative to those of the
IAT measures, suggests that the explicit measures might have been more responsive to self-presentational
forces that can mask subjects' attitudes
Convergent validity - established by demonstrating that it displays theoretically expected correlations with
other measures.
Discriminant Validity IAT and the self-report measures assessed different constructs (implicit and explicit
attitudes) AND IAT procedure sensitive to differential familiarity
www.notesolution.com

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Description
PSYC12 - Bodenhausen & Macrae, 1996 Role of cognitive miser = engaging only in the amount of thought necessary to produce an apparently adequate understanding of others Stereotypes = automatic, occur without awareness Cognitive processesare said to be automatic when they occur without the perceivers conscious intent or awareness of them, without the perceivers ability to control them, or with an efficiency that requires little investment of the perceivers limited cognitive resources Personal prejudices (e.g., racial prejudice) may make certain bases for social categorization chronically salient, so when members of these targeted categories are encountered, they tend to be categorized routinely in terms of this particular group membership rather than other equally applicable categories once stereotypic expectations are formed, they tend to bias subsequent information processing in a confirmatory manner when people are committed to egalitarian, nonprejudiced standards and their thoughts, feelings, or behavior seem to violate these standards, they tend to become self-focused and direct effort at reducing this discrepancy low-prejudice persons feel bad when their reactions to out-group members contravene their own nonprejudiced standards, so they are motivated to avoid reacting in stereotypic or prejudiced ways In order to self regulate in making stereotypes, a possible strategy is simply to make direct adjustments to ones judgments and conclusions in the direction opposite to the presumed bias Wegner et.al model of stereotype suppression = starts with the realization that for any control process to be effective, it must be able both to test the status of the environment and to operate on the environment when the test process yields less than satisfactory results Monitoring process = automatic, operating process = effortful, therefore For example, Wegner (1994) reviews evidence from studies of (1) attempts to concentrate, (2) attempts to control ones mood, (3) attempts to relax, (4) attempts to control pain, (5) attempts to fall asleep, and many others Time pressure, distraction and preoccupation, affective states, and even alcohol are factors that may impair thought control by reducing the availability of attentional resources needed to inhibit unwanted thoughts As long as the operating process is in place and functioning, mental control can often be successfully accomplished, but if the effortful operating process is impeded, suspended, or abandoned, the unchecked monitoring process can produce hyperaccessibility of unwanted mental contents, setting the stage for counterintentional reactions Social perceivers can successfully inhibit stereotypic responses while they are actively striving to do so, but once they stop making this effort, the stereotypes return to affect their thoughts and actions to an even greater degree www.notesolution.com While the operating process is working, it can keep the unwanted thoughts successfully out of awareness, but if it is interrupted by a cognitive load, or if it simply recedes or becomes inactive because of diminishing motivation to engage in suppression, then rebound effects can begin to emerge telling people that they must justify their judgments of an out-group member may instill a concern about being labeled prejudiced that results in conscious attempts to avoid stereotypes rather than conscious attempts to be as systematic and thorough as possible. Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: THE IAT TEST IAT measures 2 target concepts that appear in a 2 choice task and the attribute in a 2 task **know what the proceduredesign of the IAT is Implicit attitudes are manifest as actions or judgments that are under the control of automatically activated evaluation, without the performers awareness of that causation Seeks to measure implicit attitudes by measuring their underlying automatic evaluation IAT may reveal attitudes and other automatic associations even for people who prefer not to express those attitudes IAT assessesthe association between a target-concept discrimination and an attribute dimension The procedure starts with the introduction of the target-concept discrimination. (eg. First names that is recognizable as being attributed to BlackWhite) Respond one category to be responded by left handother by right hand Then introduce attribute dimension form of a 2 category discrimination as well (eg.pleasantunpleasant) www.notesolution.com
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