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prejudice 2

11 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Psychology of Prejudice 2 Lecture 8
Group differences in measurement of intellectual performance
Stereotype threat: being at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about your
group as being self characteristic.
Opinion questions - men and Women differ in ability? 60% no; 36% yes.
Do whites and Asians differ in intellectual ability? 50% yes; 50% no.
Do whites and Asians differ in mathematic ability? More say yes but still 50%
yes; 50% no.
Do whites and Blacks differ in intellectual ability? Majority says no.
Identity threat model of stigma – collective representation about women in
science.
There is a stereotype that women are not as good as men in math and science.
Situational cues in the environment – math classroom, science classroom (R there
cues that the individual’s identity is not valued)
Personal characteristics – Does she identify with her group? Does she care about
stereotyping? Is she highly identified in the domain of math?
Does this lead to threat appraisal?
If we are in an N.American culture, in a math/science classroom, and someone is
stigma conscious, somebody cares about math, somebody has identified about
their group, and they are more likely to make a threat appraisal. I may be judged
on the basis here that I am a woman, and a student.
There could be non-volitional responses such as stress, heart rate increase, sweat,
anxiety.
There could be volitional responses – strong motivation to disapprove of the
stereotype, efforts to cope by suppressing emotions and suppressing thoughts.
Outcomes – performance – W taking a test in a math classroom. Is it possible that
all these situations contribute to her performance in a test; will a woman perform
less relative to another woman in a different context who does not make the threat
appraisal?
Movie> IQ = 100 – you are average in certain aspects of intelligence - half the
population will have higher scores than yours and half will have lower.
Psychometrics – mental testing in all varieties.
SAT – measures academic abilities
Act assessments – tests that measure your ability in certain subject areas.
Cognitive tests – measure various aspects of your mental ability.
Personality tests – try to measure the non-cognitive parts of the human personality
– interests, values and personality traits.
Projected tests like the Rorschach test – allows psychologists to assess mental and
emotional problems. What you see in an ambiguous ink blot patterns is then
interpreted as representing your inner most thoughts.
1
www.notesolution.com
Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) – you’re asked to answer
true/false about 100 statements about what you believe and about attitudes. Your
responses are then used to derive a set of personality characteristics and to assess
whether they are more like the characteristics of ppl who are normal or abnormal.
Main goal – to gather a sample of responses conveniently and inexpensively and
then to use these responses to predict (with a minimum of error) an individual’s
future performance in some real life situation.
Adam and Eve’s apple test
The earliest recorded system of assessment was probably established by the
emperors of china – civil service testing program was instituted for gov. officials
2200BC
Sir Francis Golton of England was one of the key figures in the development of
mental measurements. At the turn of the century, Golton tried to demonstrate the
hereditary basis of intelligenece. His work triggered a lot of controversy along the
relative contribution of heritary and environment to intelligence.
Alfred Binet – published the first workable intelligence test – 1905 – test was
devised to measure the intellectual performance of school children so that
teachers could classify and separate retarded children from normal ones.
The test to meant to replace teacher’s more subjective and biased evaluations
Binet believed that his test scores were a practical estimate of current
performance, and not a measure of innate intelligence.
Test results should only be used to identify those areas in which children needed
special help, but the educators who administered these tests rarely made these
distinctions. The key to Binet’s approach was the quantification of a student’s
performance.
First, a great # of children of various ages was tested.
Average score (norm) was obtained for normal children in each age group.
An individual child’s performance was compared to the average score for his/her
age.
Test results were expressed in terms of mental age.
Ex: When a child scores average for a group of 5 yr olds then the child is said to
have a mental age of 5 regardless of his/her chronological age.
Binet’s test had a greater impact in the US.
New immigrants from Europe and various countries, new recruits enlisting in the
army during the WW1 had to be tested for intelligence and aptitude.
Assessment was seen as a way to bring order to a chaotic society.
Inexpensive, democratic way of separating out those who could benefit from
military training and education and those who were deemed incompetent.
Intelligence tests could be used to differentiate ppl in terms of their leadership
ability, and other socially important characteristics.
There was also a growing attention given to alleged intellectual differences
according to race and ethnic background.
Blacks and immigrants were inferior. – bogus arguments based on statistics
2
www.notesolution.com
Luis Turnman of Stanford University – 1916 Adapted Binet’s tests for
intelligence -> Standford Binet test
IQ (Intelligence Quotient) = Mental Age /Chronological Age * 100
Ex) Child who has chronological age of 8, whose test scores = that of a 10 yr old
would have an IQ of 125.
Clinical psychology, psychiatry, and education – popular areas for the test to be
used.
Intelligence was an inequality – which it had a lot of hereditary component, and
the IQ could measure this inequality.
IQ characterizes something essential and unchanging about human nature - about
our inherited intelligence.
1939 - David Wexler – new test to solve a major problem with all intelligence
tests – dependence on language – problem for new immigrants and for children –
he developed new non verbal sections to go along with the verbal section.
Ex: Put pics in a logical sequence.
Later revisions have been used more frequently – 3 million ppl take it/yr.
What makes a test valuable to a tester?
Misuse and racial bias in aptitude tests : 1) the test has to be valid; it has to be
able to measure what you are interested in; If you intend to measure the ability of
a young person to do well in college then the test should reveal the scores which
predicts how well that person will do in college. If you intend to measure the
ability of a young police lieutenant on his job then the test should reveal the
scores which predict how well that police lieutenant does in his job.
2) The test needs to be reliable – in order to be valid it needs to measure whatever
we are interested in the same way each time it is used.
3) The test needs to be standardized – to make sure that the ppl that we use to
establish the initial validity and reliability are the same ppl that we are going to
use the test with to measure later on.
The tests themselves have to be assessed, but we also have to measure how they
are used and misused.
Binet’s dream - Psychological assessment will replace subjective, biased
evaluations with objective ones.
Testing has been championed as a democratic tool to eliminate arbitrary and
biased evaluations of ppl based on such irrelevant criteria such as race, sex,
nationality, social class and physical appearance.
The way that competency tests have been used in a biased way in the past, &
currently is by using the results of them to tell u that certain ppl are not really
capable of doing something when they actually are. The tests sometimes tells us
this results b/c they have been not developed in such a way to account for the fact
that different ppl do the same job in different ways.
Teaching for tests instead for knowledge. Can this person do something outside of
the classroom?
3
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Psychology of Prejudice 2 Lecture 8 Group differences in measurement of intellectual performance Stereotype threat: being at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about your group as being self characteristic. Opinion questions - men and Women differ in ability? 60% no; 36% yes. Do whites and Asians differ in intellectual ability? 50% yes; 50% no. Do whites and Asians differ in mathematic ability? More say yes but still 50% yes; 50% no. Do whites and Blacks differ in intellectual ability? Majority says no. Identity threat model of stigma collective representation about women in science. There is a stereotype that women are not as good as men in math and science. Situational cues in the environment math classroom, science classroom (R there cues that the individuals identity is not valued) Personal characteristics Does she identify with her group? Does she care about stereotyping? Is she highly identified in the domain of math? Does this lead to threat appraisal? If we are in an N.American culture, in a mathscience classroom, and someone is stigma conscious, somebody cares about math, somebody has identified about their group, and they are more likely to make a threat appraisal. I may be judged on the basis here that I am a woman, and a student. There could be non-volitional responses such as stress, heart rate increase, sweat, anxiety. There could be volitional responses strong motivation to disapprove of the stereotype, efforts to cope by suppressing emotions and suppressing thoughts. Outcomes performance W taking a test in a math classroom. Is it possible that all these situations contribute to her performance in a test; will a woman perform less relative to another woman in a different context who does not make the threat appraisal? Movie > IQ = 100 you are average in certain aspects of intelligence - half the population will have higher scores than yours and half will have lower. Psychometrics mental testing in all varieties. SAT measures academic abilities Act assessments tests that measure your ability in certain subject areas. Cognitive tests measure various aspects of your mental ability. Personality tests try to measure the non-cognitive parts of the human personality interests, values and personality traits. Projected tests like the Rorschach test allows psychologists to assess mental and emotional problems. What you see in an ambiguous ink blot patterns is then interpreted as representing your inner most thoughts. 1 www.notesolution.com Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) youre asked to answer truefalse about 100 statements about what you believe and about attitudes. Your responses are then used to derive a set of personality characteristics and to assess whether they are more like the characteristics of ppl who are normal or abnormal. Main goal to gather a sample of responses conveniently and inexpensively and then to use these responses to predict (with a minimum of error) an individuals future performance in some real life situation. Adam and Eves apple test The earliest recorded system of assessment was probably established by the emperors of china civil service testing program was instituted for gov. officials 2200BC Sir Francis Golton of England was one of the key figures in the development of mental measurements. At the turn of the century, Golton tried to demonstrate the hereditary basis of intelligenece. His work triggered a lot of controversy along the relative contribution of heritary and environment to intelligence. Alfred Binet published the first workable intelligence test 1905 test was devised to measure the intellectual performance of school children so that teachers could classify and separate retarded children from normal ones. The test to meant to replace teachers more subjective and biased evaluations Binet believed that his test scores were a practical estimate of current performance, and not a measure of innate intelligence. Test results should only be used to identify those areas in which children needed special help, but the educators who administered these tests rarely made these distinctions. The key to Binets approach was the quantification of a students performance. First, a great # of children of various ages was tested. Average score (norm) was obtained for normal children in each age group. An individual childs performance was compared to the average score for hisher age. Test results were expressed in terms of mental age. Ex: When a child scores average for a group of 5 yr olds then the child is said to have a mental age of 5 regardless of hisher chronological age. Binets test had a greater impact in the US. New immigrants from Europe and various countries, new recruits enlisting in the army during the WW1 had to be tested for intelligence and aptitude. Assessment was seen as a way to bring order to a chaotic society. Inexpensive, democratic way of separating out those who could benefit from military training and education and those who were deemed incompetent. Intelligence tests could be used to differentiate ppl in terms of their leadership ability, and other socially important characteristics. There was also a growing attention given to alleged intellectual differences according to race and ethnic background. Blacks and immigrants were inferior. bogus arguments based on statistics 2 www.notesolution.com
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