•Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) – you’re asked to answer
true/false about 100 statements about what you believe and about attitudes. Your
responses are then used to derive a set of personality characteristics and to assess
whether they are more like the characteristics of ppl who are normal or abnormal.
•Main goal – to gather a sample of responses conveniently and inexpensively and
then to use these responses to predict (with a minimum of error) an individual’s
future performance in some real life situation.
•Adam and Eve’s apple test
•The earliest recorded system of assessment was probably established by the
emperors of china – civil service testing program was instituted for gov. officials
•Sir Francis Golton of England was one of the key figures in the development of
mental measurements. At the turn of the century, Golton tried to demonstrate the
hereditary basis of intelligenece. His work triggered a lot of controversy along the
relative contribution of heritary and environment to intelligence.
•Alfred Binet – published the first workable intelligence test – 1905 – test was
devised to measure the intellectual performance of school children so that
teachers could classify and separate retarded children from normal ones.
•The test to meant to replace teacher’s more subjective and biased evaluations
•Binet believed that his test scores were a practical estimate of current
performance, and not a measure of innate intelligence.
•Test results should only be used to identify those areas in which children needed
special help, but the educators who administered these tests rarely made these
distinctions. The key to Binet’s approach was the quantification of a student’s
•First, a great # of children of various ages was tested.
•Average score (norm) was obtained for normal children in each age group.
•An individual child’s performance was compared to the average score for his/her
•Test results were expressed in terms of mental age.
•Ex: When a child scores average for a group of 5 yr olds then the child is said to
have a mental age of 5 regardless of his/her chronological age.
•Binet’s test had a greater impact in the US.
•New immigrants from Europe and various countries, new recruits enlisting in the
army during the WW1 had to be tested for intelligence and aptitude.
•Assessment was seen as a way to bring order to a chaotic society.
•Inexpensive, democratic way of separating out those who could benefit from
military training and education and those who were deemed incompetent.
•Intelligence tests could be used to differentiate ppl in terms of their leadership
ability, and other socially important characteristics.
•There was also a growing attention given to alleged intellectual differences
according to race and ethnic background.
•Blacks and immigrants were inferior. – bogus arguments based on statistics