[PSYC18H3] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (43 pages long!)

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Published on 29 Nov 2016
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC18H3
UTSC
PSYC18H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Lecture 3
Continue from last class…
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
- Human nature has been corrupted by reason & science.
- Natural state of human being is that of noble savage
-Consequently, ideal form of education is to let kids be.
-Spontaneity of emotion preferred over sterility of reason.
-German Romantic scholar- thinks people are born with natural inclination to
develop into human being, if left along to their emotions.
-Education actively discourage living emotionally.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832)
- How do people react to color?
- Each color represents diff. emotion & intellectual faculty.
- Artists must choose wisely… to evoke effectively.
- Positive vs. Negative sides of the hue circle.
-Feeling emotionally and engaging with art-work.
-Blue: understanding faculty, evoke quiet mode.
-Red: evoke a very festive feeling, appeal to imagination.
-Advice to artist: Sampling from only one side of the hue circle may evoke emotions
that are over-whelming. To evoke the right emotion for emotional harmony, artists
should use the positive side (red + orange + yellow) and negative sides as well
(balance). *The splendid effect: people feeling calm due to emotional harmony.
-The world of artwork: paintings should evoke emotional harmony, doesn’t matter if
it evoke thoughts.
-*German romantics: emotion salient, doesn’t matter thoughtful or not.
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)
The Will:
- Humans are motivated by their basic desires: will to live.
- These desires are futile & illogical.
- Human desires lead to suffering.
- Temporary escape through aesthetic contemplation.
-Irony: people know it’s impossible to live forever. Con--- constant anxiety for this
desire that can’t be obtained.
-Aesthetic contemplation: getting loss in book, movies… etc.
-Three motives related to emotions:
- 1. Compassion: the one that should guide you. Living a life with awareness of other
people, empathy, sympathize with others situation. The best motive.
-2. Malice: feeling pleasure from other’s suffering.
-3. Egoism: Individualism and selfishness. Putting one’s interest before other people.
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
The Will: - What underlies human behavior is the will to power.
- In contrast to will to live. - Adaptation and struggle for survival is a secondary drive… living
in itself appears to be a subsidiary aim
-The will to power is central to life. The will to live is secondary.
In order to gain more power, you must live and attempt to reproduce. Thus, the will to
power is supported by the will to live.
Example: people and animals risk their life to gain more power.
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Emotion and evolution
Origin of life…
- Christians in 16th Century Europe:
- Special creation.
- Implies: immutable species
Yet, the fossil record reveals:
1. Species change
2. Speciation
3. Extinction
Consequently… Early Evolutionary Theories
e.g., Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
- Transmutation of species was explained by principle of inheritance of acquired
characteristics.
-There are modifications made to the physical body (the organs, limbs .. ) that occurred
during the particular lifetime of an organism due to increased/decreased use, and these
changes are passed onto the offspring of the organism.
Ex: weightlifter --- offspring of the weightlifter will be a very muscular baby. (increased use).
Ex: blind bird --- bird with eyes taped, offspring will be born blind. (decreased use, lost the
function and it is transmitted to the next generation).
Soft heredity: mistaking phenotype and genotype, assuming observable characteristics are
always tied in to our gene.
àAssumed the behavior, physical characteristics, emotions are all genetically based.
Therefore, things we do in life are transmitted and are heritable.
Non-Evolutionary Precursors to Darwin
Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
- Key problem that he addresses…Earth was thought to be quite young back then (2-3000
years old), yet fossil record show that changes in species occurred gradually. Thus, there
isn’t enough time to accommodate the changes that has occurred.
- Principles of Geology: from observing the layers of Earth, found that it is much older. This
proposal proves that there is enough time to accommodate the degree and gradual changes
for species.- Earth older than originally thought - 100 million yrs not 2000-3000 yrs.
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
-English political economist. “Population growth rate >> food growth rate”
-- Inevitably… creates a struggle for existence.
- Fittest organisms favored.- What determines fitness? Fittest: the one best adapted to
environment. àphysical, behavioral, emotional characteristics.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
- Voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836)
- Gentleman’s companion of captain.
- Observations…Many species… and within species there are many differences.
Ex: finches -à different sizes of beak. Related to the environment of the finches.
Hard nut, tough shell: large beak.
Tender and tiny seed: small beak.
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Document Summary

Human nature has been corrupted by reason & science. Natural state of human being is that of noble savage. Consequently, ideal form of education is to let kids be. Spontaneity of emotion preferred over sterility of reason. German romantic scholar- thinks people are born with natural inclination to develop into human being, if left along to their emotions. Each color represents diff. emotion & intellectual faculty. Red: evoke a very festive feeling, appeal to imagination. Advice to artist: sampling from only one side of the hue circle may evoke emotions that are over-whelming. To evoke the right emotion for emotional harmony, artists should use the positive side (red + orange + yellow) and negative sides as well (balance). *the splendid effect: people feeling calm due to emotional harmony. The world of artwork: paintings should evoke emotional harmony, doesn"t matter if it evoke thoughts. *german romantics: emotion salient, doesn"t matter thoughtful or not.

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