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PSYC18H3 Study Guide - Mania, Apache Spark, Wage Labour

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Gerald Cupchik

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-adapting and finding meaning
-our experience of space and time is plastic
-i.e. vince carter making 50 shots in 1 game- said that it felt like a lake (meaning the basket felt much
-thrownness: you were thrown into this life as the person you are and this gender
-umwelt: your surrounding physical/organic world
-mitwelt: world with others (social/cultural world)
-eigenwelt: world with oneself (in its entirety)
-In the middle ages, nothing changed and you weren’t changing; 1500’s
-1500’s to now is where big change happened – middle ages people didn’t know about the body
didn’t know about the body until 1800s, and it accelerated – and now we know about the brain, but still
a lot more to know
-age of discontinuity is when the industrial revolution began with machinery being used (Baudelaire)
-we are adapting to the world, dealing with it, seeing if it’s beautiful
*-John Locke- we look into ourselves
-feelings: you feel good or bad about certain things and the ideas of good and evil are rational
judgments that we make about the world
1. Conceiving of our worlds
Geisteswissenschaften (“human sciences”) study culture through Verstehen (acts of empathic
understanding), and Hermeneutics (interpreting the artifacts of a world filled with meaning).
-human sciences study culture though acts of emphatic understanding and interpreting the artifacts of a
world filled with meanings
-human sciences are culturally oriented
-Emphasis is placed on wisdom and understanding the life-world.
-Life world-your world- think about your world
-Idiographic, individual cases, concrete situations or events.
What is the meaning of a situation and concrete events?
- Phenomenology - the description and structure of experience what went down and what it meant to
*-Surface oriented- just basic description
*-In-depth oriented- go into sub-basement of what they were thinking/feeling
This is all part of Geisteswissenschaften!
-we are living in the world of Geisteswissenschaften, science of humans, peoples’ situations -we begin
with the life world, where there are episodes with meanings and we try to grasp these meanings
2. Studying our worlds
Naturwissenschaften the “objective” and scientific study of nature both physical and organic.
When “studying our worlds” – emphasis is placed on knowledge and explanation
- Nomothetic, universal principles (scientific principles)
*-ideographic (individual cases) vs. nomothetic (scientific principles)
Which one is more complex, the physical world or the world of the mind?
-At one level we can argue that studying the physical world is more complex. At another level we can
argue that the physical world is a projection of our concepts.
-The physical world is a creation of the noetic world, the world of the mind (Emmanuel Kant)

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Geisteswissenschaften (human science)-allows variation vs. Naturwissenschaften (objective science)-
allows precision
-we have ideas about the world we have ideas about the physical world and about the social world -
they’re not truth, they are IDEAS
- we orient around our world in terms of these ideas and these ideas permit us to negotiate our worlds
-does the mind create the physical world - The way we think about our world is our world
-we have ideas about the physical, organic and our worlds ideas in our minds and we share them
How does this relate to psychology?
Let’s consider two worlds… the everyday world and the world of the laboratory (aka research world).
(1) Events occur in the everyday world.
-automatic aspect and special moments in everyday life
Critical episode- an episode that changed your life
Distinguish b/w lived world vs. plane of observation
i. lived-world (engaged viewpoint) the critical episodes- very rich and vivid description -
ii. Plane of observation (detached viewpoint) what we’re trained in school – science side standing
back and taking a look at what’s going on down there
(2) Events occur in the laboratory world.
Concept of ecological validity: do events in the laboratory world meaningfully relate to events and
situations in the lived-world?
-what’s the relationship between the lab world and the outside world
*-events in lab world should match events in outside world which would mean they are ecologically
valid (Kurt Lewin)
Life Episodes
- These are events that take place in these worlds as we struggle with these life themes
Personal Life Narratives
We have experiences and feelings about our life-worlds and events that take place within them. -
expressed in the forms of narratives or stories in terms of which we define ourselves
-stories comprise facts and interpretations of these facts which we take to be true about ourselves and
our worlds i.e. Facts of the family
Layers or Levels
You are in a life… actually many lives at once…You are in a world… actually many worlds at once…
**-Freud’s “double touch” – we live in the belief that we are a separate entity within a physically bound
-many lives and many worlds i.e. public world and private world
-within the person you are you are multilayered and can see ourselves as an open ended system how
coherent or diffuse am I as a person?
*Jung: notion of the persona
-”social mask”
-suppression intentionally turning back on an event
-repression unintentionally turning back on an event
-unifying the self involves coming to terms with who you were in all layers of you in all layers of life and
accepting them
-relate to the person you were and are now unity within diversity fundamental principle
Four Fundamental Layers:
(i) noetic: includes all mental processes and different forms of knowing

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- Perceptual, Intellectual, Emotional
(ii) organic: includes all biological processes
(iii) physical: includes all physical processes
(iv) social: includes all social/cultural systems
- These layers have their own unique properties but also interact with each other.
- Paradox of one body and many selves.
**- Looks like one body and this implies one self - Illusion of unity
Interface of Mind and Body (problem of consciousness):
Consciousness lies at the sentient boundary between stimulation from the outside world and from the
inside world, physical, cognitive, and affective during a particular period of time.
-we have events going on in our bodies (sensations coming in) so we’re organically/affectively active
-you have knowledge about the world (people, things, etc) around you and environment
*Consciousness is the place where events coming in from outside world meet events that are happening
in your body/mind
-apprehension: you are reaching out to the world and the world is coming to you and somehow there is
a fit-to find meaning in the world
-when we find meaning in the world in an emotional way it means that our body and our
understanding encounter events in the outside world that are comprehensible to us and that’s
where it happens in consciousness
-we usually are in “autopilot” mode so what are we conscious of?
-we only notice things that are “unexpected”
-our world goes on automatically, events happen in world and body and they meet in the domain of
How do we see ourselves?
1. Are we objects or processes?
- Are we static or dynamic?
Object = due to label = self-fulfilling prophecy labeling and restricting whole self
Process = open ended = I am, I did and this happened I take ownership and I go on with my life
-we can see ourselves and others different ways
-difference between self and other viewpoint when I see you I see traits, seeing myself in situations -
you are selfish, but I had to do it because of this…
2. Can we change or are we bounded by our personal histories?
-Yes and yes, and no and no
-there is a need to be loose and able to change and be open, multi layered in situations
3. Literal viewpoint (externalized view) closed process
- As objects w/ features, grades, status, money
-Very closed: people who are very literal take whatever you say at face value, literal meaning not the
best sense of humour; lack of insight/deep thinking
4. Ironic/Metaphorical viewpoint - open process
- see ourselves in context, changing
-Looks behind the surface
*-shift from literal to ironic viewpoint is fundamentally important to get insight into life!
5. Shifting viewpoints
- engaged: absorbed in our experiences (lived-world) vs. detached: outside of our experiences (plane of
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