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PSYC21H3 (14)

Bauer and Gallese notes

17 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC21H3
Professor
David Haley

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Patricia Bauer – Event Memory: Neural, Cognitive, and Social Influences on Early
Development
-Focus on lower level of analysis (neural systems, basic cognitive processes and social
influences)
-Event (k. Nelson)
oEvents involve people in purposeful activities and acting on objects and
interacting with each other to achieve some result
oExclude physical transformations (water is water, dripping is water)
oEvents are things we go through everyday/unique experiences that define us
oSpecifies what we remember: actors, objects, actions (elements we combine to
achieve a goal)
-Early infant memory
oafter birth, children able to distinguish novel vs familiar story passages told to
them while in the last weeks of pregnancy
oinfants learn/benefit from past experiences
-Declarative and non-declarative memory
oMemory is not unitary trait, comprised of many systems, serve different functions
and follow different rules of operation
oDeclarative memory
Also known as explicit memory
Captures what we refer to asmemory/remembering
Capacity to explicitly recall names, places, events and so on
Fast, flexible and fallible (memory traces degrade during recollection)
One trail learning, not tied to specific modality/context
oNon-Declarative memory
non conscious abilities
capacity for learning habits and skills, priming and forms of conditioning
www.notesolution.com
impact of experience is made evident when there is a change in behaviour
or performance (but that experience leading to the change is not
consciously accessible)
slow, reliable and inflexible
-brain areas
onon-declarative memory (NDM)
neocortex (priming)
striatum (skill learning)
cerebellum (conditioning)
these regions develop early and support early emergence of NDM
othe circuit through the brain and NDM complete around the first year of life
(shows early emergence of NDM)
odeclarative memory
multi-component networking (temporal and cortical structures)
entire circuit finishes developing the first year of life and continues to
develop thereafter and pronounced changes in declarative memory
-measuring Declarative memory (DM) non-verbally
ochallenge: to distinguish if infant has conscious access to mental content (hard to
tell because they can not verbally comment)
ouse visual paired comparisons and habituation to express non verbal recognition
oattentional preference techniques
measure changes in infant responses to previously encountered stimuli
unclear whether they measure the same type of recognition as evidenced
when adults explicitly affirm that they have seen that stimulus before
mandler (1998) suggests that infant recognition memory
experiments are a form of NDM
explicit judgments are not required to produce a recognition
response (should not be assumed that such responses are explicit)
odeferred imitation
www.notesolution.com
suggested to test ability in infants to imitate (deferred or immediate and
seeing if they can reproduce the sequence of behaviours)
used to distinguish declarative memories
despite multiple experiences (as NDM functions), imitation works on the
basis of single experiences (rapid succession of single cases)
imitation based tasks are accessible to language (once acquired the
linguistic capacity to do so, infants talk about their preverbal experiences)
tap declarative memory because patients with amnesia or (infants who
received insults prior) do poorly on tasks
-developments in Event memory in Infancy
ousing deferred imitation: signs of early emergence of event memory
odevelopmental trend: length of time over remembered events increase dramatically
throughout the first 2 years of life
oearly 1st year of life
temporal extent in DM is limited
6 months of age: infant remember 1 step out of a 3 part sequence
Collie and Hayne: 6mth old remember 1 in 5 unique actions over 24 hour
delay
9 months: remember unique acts over 24 hour delay
10-11 months: remember over 3 months
13-14 months: remember actions over 4-6months
20 months: remember actions of event sequences over 12 months
-Sources of age related change in Event Memory
oNo age differences in encoding (thus, 17-24 month remembered events 4 months
later, thus implying memory storage did not differ with age)
oThis means: retrieval is based on “what`s developed, rear end” (whats been
consolidated)
onot a safe assumption”
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Patricia Bauer Event Memory: Neural, Cognitive, and Social Influences on Early Development - Focus on lower level of analysis (neural systems, basic cognitive processes and social influences) - Event (k. Nelson) o Events involve people in purposeful activities and acting on objects and interacting with each other to achieve some result o Exclude physical transformations (water is water, dripping is water) o Events are things we go through everydayunique experiences that define us o Specifies what we remember: actors, objects, actions (elements we combine to achieve a goal) - Early infant memory o after birth, children able to distinguish novel vs familiar story passages told to them while in the last weeks of pregnancy o infants learnbenefit from past experiences - Declarative and non-declarative memory o Memory is not unitary trait, comprised of many systems, serve different functions and follow different rules of operation o Declarative memory Also known as explicit memory Captures what we refer to as memoryremembering Capacity to explicitly recall names, places, events and so on Fast, flexible and fallible (memory traces degrade during recollection) One trail learning, not tied to specific modalitycontext o Non-Declarative memory non conscious abilities capacity for learning habits and skills, priming and forms of conditioning www.notesolution.com impact of experience is made evident when there is a change in behaviour or performance (but that experience leading to the change is not consciously accessible) slow, reliable and inflexible - brain areas o non-declarative memory (NDM) neocortex (priming) striatum (skill learning) cerebellum (conditioning) these regions develop early and support early emergence of NDM o the circuit through the brain and NDM complete around the first year of life (shows early emergence of NDM) o declarative memory multi-component networking (temporal and cortical structures) entire circuit finishes developing the first year of life and continues to develop thereafter and pronounced changes in declarative memory - measuring Declarative memory (DM) non-verbally o challenge: to distinguish if infant has conscious access to mental content (hard to tell because they can not verbally comment) o use visual paired comparisons and habituation to express non verbal recognition o attentional preference techniques measure changes in infant responses to previously encountered stimuli unclear whether they measure the same type of recognition as evidenced when adults explicitly affirm that they have seen that stimulus before mandler (1998) suggests that infant recognition memory experiments are a form of NDM explicit judgments are not required to produce a recognition response (should not be assumed that such responses are explicit) o deferred imitation www.notesolution.com
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