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PSYC23H3 Study Guide - Winter 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Cortisol, Major Depressive Disorder, Arousal


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC23H3
Professor
David Haley
Study Guide
Midterm

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PSYC23H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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Overview
Early life plays a crucial role in human development (physical and mental health)
Early relationships regulate
Stress physiology
Gene expression
Brain development
Societal factors affect early life
Adversity, SES, ACES, and institutional rearing, war, etc
Urie Bronfenbrenner
“…in order to develop normally, a child requires progressively more complex joint activity with one or more adults who
have an irrational emotional relationship with the child. Somebody’s got to be crazy about that kid. That’s number
one. First, last, and always”
Relationships matter
Serve and return interactions
Coordinated and reciprocal
Meaning and greater integration
Still face experiment - mother and baby
Positive and warm parent-child relationships
Understand others’ feelings, needs, and thoughts
Cognitive skills and social competence
Positive and warm relationship with school teachers in kindergarten
Excited about learning
Excited to be in school
Relationships matter
Young children are highly vulnerable emotionally to adverse influences of parental mental health problems
and family violence
Maternal depression especially when combined with difficult temperament and early rapid brain
development
Interventions are challenged by greater adversity
Greater emotional distress in the family influences the quality of maternal behaviour, which affects:
Gene expression/neural development in brain regions involved in the regulation of the HPA-axis,
social/emotional behaviour, and cognition
10 types of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs)
Abuse
Physical (1)
Sexual (2)
Emotional (3)
Neglect [probably the most frequent type]
Physical (4)
Emotional (5)
Drug or alcohol abuse (6)
Mentally ill person in the home (7)
Witnessing domestic violence (8)
Incarceration of a family member (9)
Loss of a parent to death, abandonment, or divorce (10)
Medical and dental neglect
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Educational neglect
Inadequate supervision
Exposure to violent environments
Adverse childhood experience (ACEs)
While you were growing up, during your first 18 years of life:
1. Did a parent or other adult in the household often…
a. Swear at you, insult you, put you down, or humiliate you?
b. Act in a way that made you afraid that you might be physically hurt?
c. yes/no, if yes, enter 1 ______
2. Did a parent or other adult in the household often…
a. Push, grab, slap, or throw something at you?
b. Ever hit you so hard that you had marks or were injured?
c. yes/no, if yes, enter 1 ______
3. Did an adult or person at least 5 years older than you ever …
a. Touch or fondle you or have you touch their body in a sexual way?
b. Try to or actually have oral, anal, or vaginal sex with you?
c. Yes No If yes enter 1 ________
4. Did you often feel that …
a. No one in your family loved you or thought you were important or special?
b. Your family didn’t look out for each other, feel close to each other, or support each other?
c. Yes No If yes enter 1 ________
5. Did you often feel that …
a. You didn’t have enough to eat, had to wear dirty clothes, and had no one to protect you?
b. Your parents were too drunk or high to take care of you or take you to the doctor if you needed it?
c. Yes No If yes enter 1 ________
6. Were your parents ever separated or divorced?
a. Yes No If yes enter 1 ________
7. Was your mother or stepmother:
a. Often pushed, grabbed, slapped, or had something thrown at her?
b. Sometimes or often kicked, bitten, hit with a fist, or hit with something hard?
c. Ever repeatedly hit over at least a few minutes or threatened with a gun or knife?
d. Yes No If yes enter 1 ________
8. Did you live with anyone who was a problem drinker or alcoholic or who used street drugs?
a. Yes No If yes enter 1 ________
9. Was a household member depressed or mentally ill or did a household member attempt suicide?
a. Yes No If yes enter 1 ________
10. Did a household member go to prison?
a. Yes No If yes enter 1 ________
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