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Midterm

Midterm1: Chapter 1&10

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC31H3
Professor
Konstantine Zakzanis

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PSYC31 Text Notes- Midterm 1
Chapter 1: Practice of Neuropsychological Assessment
Clinical neuropsychology: applied science concerned with behavior expression of brain DYSfunction
- 19th C, idea of controlled observations became accepted providing conceptual tool allowing neuroscientists to lay out
basic schema of brain- behavior relationships hold true today
- first half 20th C, war- damaged brains gave way to development of clinical NP
- need for screening and diagnosis of brain injured and behaviorally disturbed servicemen and their rehab during WW1 =
demands for NP programs
- WW2, wars in east Asia and Mideast promoted development of talented NP and sophisticated examination and treatment
techniques
- psychology contributed two other domains of knowledge integral to NP
1. Educational psychology + Binets test of intelligence
- educational testing soruce of reliable measurement techniques and statistical tools for test standardization and
development of normative data, analysis of research findings and validation studies
- personality and social behavior research borrowed from and further elaborated principles found in educational testing
2. experimental studies of cognitive functions in humans and animals
- animal studies and clinical reports of brain injured persons especially soldiers with localized wounds and stroke patients
lead to knowledge of brain function
- neuroscientists aware of usefulness of cognitive constructs and psychological techniques when studying brain- behavior
relationship
- 21st C, further advantage of brain imaging techniques
- practice of NP calls for Flexibility, Curiosity, Inventiveness and Empathy
- growing sensitivity to problems of identification, assessment, care and treatment of brain impaired patients
- psychologists, psychiatrists and counselors ask for NP assistance in identifying those candidates for their services who
may have underlying neurological disorders
- neurologists and neurosurgeons request behavioral evaluations to aid in diagnosis and to document course of brain
disorders or the effects of treatment
- any of 6 different purposes may prompt NP examination:
- each purpose calls for some differences in assessment strategies
- many assessments serve two or more purposesintegrate strategies
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1. Diagnosis
- questions about management and planning
- NP assessment can be useful in discriminating btw psychiatric and neurological symptoms in identifying possible
neurological disorder in nonpsychiatric patient; distinguish btw neurological conditions and in providing behavioral data
for localizing site (or at least hemisphere side- of a lesion)
- NP assessment diminished as contributions to patient care, treatment, understanding behavioral phenomena and brain
function has grown development of noninvasive neurodiagnostic techniques both sensitive and reliable for diagnostic
purposes
- still some circumstances, laboratory analyses may not be diagnostically relevanti.e. toxic encephalopathies,
Alzheimerss disease and mild TBI
- even when site and extent of brain lesion shown on imaging, image will not identify nature of residual behavioral
strengths nad accompanying deficits - NP assessment needed
- cases where localized lesions appear quite similar on neuroimaging though each had distinctively different psychosocial
outcome
- cognitive assessment can document mental abilities inconsistent with anatomic findings
- though limited as primary diagnostic tool, NP assessment can aid in prediction – of outcome of diagnosed condition,
practical consequence of brain impairment of likelihood that neuropathological condition will be manifested
- before, little attention paid to either base rate issues or prevalence of conditions in which psychiatric and neurological
contributions were mixed and interactive
- screening impt in NP assessmentused in refined manner to identify persons most likely at risk for some specified
condition or in need of further diagnostic study where brevity/ magnitude is required
2. Patient care
- many patients referred for detailed info about their cognitive status, behavioral alterations and personality characteristics
- very least, neuropsychologist has responsibility to describe to patient as fully as necessary for intelligent understanding
and care
- precise descriptive info about cognitive and emotional status essential for careful management of many neurological
disorders
- rational planning depends on understanding of patients capabilities and limitations, kinds of psychological change they
are undergoing and impact of these changes on their experiences
- answer questions concerning patients capacity for self- care, reliability in following therapeutic regimen
- all data taken togetherexaminer have idea of patients reacts to deficits and can best compensate for them
- data from successive NP exams serve as reliable indications of whether underlying NP condition is changing, if so and
how rapidly
- brain impaired patients must have factual info about their functioning to understand themselves and to set realistic goals
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Description
PSYC31 Text Notes- Midterm 1 Chapter 1: Practice of Neuropsychological Assessment Clinical neuropsychology: applied science concerned with behavior expression of brain DYSfunction th - 19 C, idea of controlled observations became accepted providing conceptual tool allowing neuroscientists to lay out basic schema of brain- behavior relationships hold true today th - first half 20 C, war- damaged brains gave way to development of clinical NP - need for screening and diagnosis of brain injured and behaviorally disturbed servicemen and their rehab during WW1 = demands for NP programs - WW2, wars in east Asia and Mideast promoted development of talented NP and sophisticated examination and treatment techniques - psychology contributed two other domains of knowledge integral to NP 1. Educational psychology + Binets test of intelligence - educational testing soruce of reliable measurement techniques and statistical tools for test standardization and development of normative data, analysis of research findings and validation studies - personality and social behavior research borrowed from and further elaborated principles found in educational testing 2. experimental studies of cognitive functions in humans and animals - animal studies and clinical reports of brain injured persons especially soldiers with localized wounds and stroke patients lead to knowledge of brain function - neuroscientists aware of usefulness of cognitive constructs and psychological techniques when studying brain- behavior relationship - 21 C, further advantage of brain imaging techniques - practice of NP calls for Flexibility, Curiosity, Inventiveness and Empathy - growing sensitivity to problems of identification, assessment, care and treatment of brain impaired patients - psychologists, psychiatrists and counselors ask for NP assistance in identifying those candidates for their services who may have underlying neurological disorders - neurologists and neurosurgeons request behavioral evaluations to aid in diagnosis and to document course of brain disorders or the effects of treatment - any of 6 different purposes may prompt NP examination: - each purpose calls for some differences in assessment strategies - many assessments serve two or more purposes integrate strategies www.notesolution.com
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