PSYC39H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Pathological Jealousy, Construct Validity, Peer Pressure

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26 Jan 2013
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Chapter 5: Juvenile Offending
Once a child is 12, they are assumed to be in sufficient control of their behavior
Juvenile Delinquents Act: recognize the special circumstances inherent with juvenile
offenders; legislation applied to individuals between 7 and 16 (18 in some jurisdictions)
Criticism of juvenile delinquents act: denying youth of rights, right to appeal, legal
representation, broad definition of delinquency that included acts that were not illegal for
adults
Youth offenders act: 7 and 12 years old (and up to 18); possibility of transfer to adult
court if 14 years old and up
Youth offenders act: allowed youth cases to be diverted; decision not to prosecute a
young offender but rather have them undergo a community service program; young
offender would have to plead guilty for diversion to be possible
Canada has the highest incarceration rate for youth in Western world, including U.S.
Youth criminal justice act replaced youth offenders act; 3 main objectives are to prevent
youth crime, provide meaningful consequences and encourage responsibility of behavior,
to improve rehabilitation and reintegration of youth into the community
Extrajudicial measures: police giving a warning or making referral for treatment
Once juvenile is charged, they can no longer be transferred to adult court under the youth
criminal justice act, rather, if a juvenile defendant is found guilty the judge can impose an
adult sentence as long as the defendant is at least 14 years old
Most common sentence for juveniles was probation
Pattern has been found linking early onset of antisocial behavior to more serious and
persistent antisocial behavior later in life
Adolescent-onset pattern occurs in about 70 percent of general population
Brame, Nagin and Tremblay: researchers found that the overall level of aggression
decreased as the boys got older, regardless of how high it was when the participants when
youngsters
Children who have an antisocial biological father are more likely to engage in antisocial
behavior, even when raised apart from the father, suggesting that environment is not the
only influence
Wadsworth: found that antisocial youth have slower heart rates than non-antisocial youth,
suggesting a higher threshold for excitability and emotionality
Moffitt and Henry: found that antisocial youth have less frontal lobe inhibition than youth
who do not engage in antisocial behavior
Conduct disordered behavior (likely to be present in childhood) that focuses on the
thought processes that occur in social interactions; thought process alternate responses
to cues response is chosen and performed
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Conduct disordered youth demonstrate cognitive deficits and distortions, often attending
to fewer cues and misattributing hostile intent to ambiguous situations, limited problem
solving skills, producing few solutions to problems, solutions are aggressive in nature
Reactive aggression: emotionally aggressive response to a perceived threat or frustration
Proactive aggression: aggression directed at achieving a goal or receiving positive
reinforcers
Reactively aggressive youth (earlier onset of problems) are likely to demonstrate
deficiencies early in the cognitive process, such as focusing on only a few social cues;
proactively aggressive youth likely to have deficiencies in generating alternate responses
Intergenerational aggression: one aggressive generation produces the next
Coercive family process model: aggressive behavior among youth develops from
imitation of parents and reinforcement
Strongest predictor of juvenile offending is the presence of aggressive behavior before
the age of 13
Child who has multiple risk factors but who can overcome them and prevail has been
termed resilient
Carson and Butcher: intelligence and a commitment to education serve as protective
factors for juveniles at risk for antisocial behavior
Strongest protective individual factor is having an intolerant attitude toward antisocial
behavior
Males may be involved in more serious juvenile offending than females because of
greater exposure to risk factors and lower exposure to protective factors
Internalizing problems: emotional difficulties such as anxiety, depression
Externalizing problems: bullying, fighting, lying this problem can develop into more
persistent and serious antisocial acts, more difficult to treat, long term persistence
Males more likely to have externalizing difficulties than females (10:1)
To qualify for ADHD diagnosis, number of symptoms must be present, occur in two or
more settings, persist for at least six months
ODD (oppositional defiant disorder): pattern of negativistic, hostile and defiant behavior
CD (conduct disorder): rights of others or basic social rules are violated; approx. 50% of
children who meet the criteria for CD go on to receive diagnoses of antisocial personality
disorder in adulthood
Primary intervention strategies are implemented prior to any violence occurring with the
goal of decreasing the likelihood that violence will occur later on. Secondary intervention
strategies attempt to reduce the frequency of violence. Tertiary intervention strategies
attempt to prevent violence from reoccurring
Primary intervention strategies: goal is to identify groups of children that have numerous
risk factors for engaging in antisocial behavior later on
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Incredible years parenting program: parents of high risk children tend to discontinue the
training at rates that may exceed 50 percent
Secondary intervention strategies are directed at juveniles who have either had contact
with the police or criminal justice system or have demonstrated behavioral problems at
school
Many of the same approaches used in primary intervention strategies are used here. One
of the main differences is the “target” (which children are involved in the program) rather
than the content of the intervention; common secondary intervention strategies include
diversion programs, family therapy, skills training
Diversion programs divert youth offenders from the juvenile justice system into
community treatment programs. Belief is that justice system may cause more harm than
good in reducing offending
Multisystemic therapy was not found to be more effective than typical services available
in Ontario
Tertiary intervention strategies are aimed at juveniles who have engaged in criminal acts
and who may have already been processed through formal court proceedings. As such,
these intervention efforts are actually more “treatment” than prevention, recipients are
often chronic and serious juvenile offenders
Shorter stays in institutional settings and greater involvement with community services
are more effective for violent juveniles
More comprehensive and extensive programs should be directed toward life course
persistent juveniles. School based prevention programs are more successful for
adolescent limited juveniles
Chapter 7: Violent Offending
Human aggression has been defined as any behavior directed towards another individual
that is carried out with the immediate intent to cause harm, perpetrator must believe that
the behavior will harm the target, and that the target is motivated to avoid the behavior
Violence defined as aggression that has extreme harm as its goal
Violent crime accounts for approx 1/8 criminal incidents in Canada
Most common reason given for not reporting crimes was that the victim dealt with the
incident in another way, not important enough, did not want police involved
Men more likely to experience non sexual violence than women whereas women were
more likely to experience sexual violence than men
Some characteristics associated with higher rates of violent victimization are being
young, single, often going out in the evening, living in cities
Hostile aggression: impulsive reaction to some real or perceived threat (emotion
Instrumental aggression: premeditated and aimed at achieving some secondary goal
(gain)
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