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psyc85 final notes.pdf

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Michelle Hilscher

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PSYC85 Final Chapter notesCHAPTER 9 BEHAVIOURISMBehaviourism is one of the most dominant approaches to psychologybehaviourists regard behaviour as the only proper subject for psychology they do not consider subjective experience a legitimate topicThorndike should be seen as a transitional figure occupying a middle ground between those functionalists who embraced introspection and the behaviourists who disregarded it completelyAnimals cannot be asked to introspect and one source of behaviourism is animal researchBehaviourism originated in America and preRevolutionary Russia where Pavlovs work on conditioned reflexes was first initiatedIvan P Pavlov 18491936Originally set out to become a priest but turned to natural sciences after reading Darwins Origin of SpeciesTook interest in physiology became a medical doctor in 1883 won Nobel Prize in 1904He was extremely fortunate to have people around him who took care of him his brother and then his wife who allowed him to devote a good amount of time to his researchInstitute of Experimental Medicine was constructed for him in St PetersburgPravda leader of the Communist party in Russia was one of the foundations of materialism in biology o Materialism is the doctrine that physical events constitute the only realityAt the time Pavlov did not consider himself to be a psychologist in fact he did not even consider psychology a sciencehe believed that physiology was a science and it did not link to psychology in any way o Though later on in his career he did acknowledge Thorndike for conducting great research he maintained that it was best to approach psychological questions through physiology rather than the oppositeSalivation experiments made him a household namehe made a distinction between unconditioned and conditioned reflexes in attempts to understand how a stimuli such as furniture could elicit a response like saliva o Unconditioned reflexes is when a given response always occurs in the presence of the same stimulusFood is an unconditioned stimulus and salivation is an unconditioned responsePavlov listed other reflexes such as defence freedom and purpose o Conditioned reflexes occur only under certain conditionsex Pavlovs experiment with salivating dogThe tone became a conditioned stimulus and the saliva was a conditioned responseImportant notes about conditioning o Conditioned responses have less magnitude than unconditioned responses less saliva w tone than food o Extinction of a conditioned response occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented continuously without the presence of the unconditioned stimulus o The previously extinguished response can return if the animal returns to the same place etc this is called spontaneous recoveryUnconditioned reflexes are not enough by themselves to ensure the survival of organismso The animal must not only eat the food but be able to find it as well o The function of conditioned stimuli is to signal the animals to unconditioned stimuli if they are reliable the animal will continue to respond to them o Key thing about conditioned stimulusthey form temporary connections that are inhibited when they become unreliable signalso Adaptability is the ability to change ones responses as the environment changesIt is important to note that Pavlov believed that conditioning enables the organism to form an adaptive reflexive relationship with its environment SpeechHigherorder conditioning occurs when a second conditioned stimulus is paired with a conditioned stimulus that has already been establishedo UCS UCRo CSCR 1Primary signalsCS 2Secondary signals This leads to two levels of signalsprimary and secondary o Primary signalling systemconsists mostly of sensory stimuli like the tone o Secondary signalling systemconsists largely of words a single word can stand for an entire class of signals and thus greatly extend the range of stimuli to which a person can respondthe word phone does not refer to one specific phone rather it refers to all phonesLearning to use one phone can be generalized to other phonesSpeech is the greatest factor that differs us from animals gives us power over the environmentTemperaments and PsychopathologyPavlov believed that the fundamental cortical processes were excitation and inhibition o To properly adjust you must have the ability to separate those responses that are appropriate to the situation from those that are notPavlov studied the ease at which animals were able to form conditioned reflexes o Excitatory groups are easily conditioned o Inhibitory groups are not easily conditionedHe believed that people could be sorted this way too following Hippocrates model o Choleric extremely excitatory o Sanguine o Phlegmatic o Melancholic extremely inhibitoryo The imbalance between the two extremes is associated with pathologyVivisection and Antivivisection Vivisection refers to the dissection of live animalsAntivivisection refers to the movement against the use of live animals in research Pavlov believed it was necessary to sacrifice some animals to benefit researchmankindVladimir BekhterevRegarded the individual as a system of energy transformation and exchange similar to FreudIntroduced reflexologyattempt to explain all behaviour from individual to social in terms of reflex conceptBelieved that basic laws of physical science could be applied to explain all levels of behaviour o EXgravitational attraction applies to inanimate objects as well as individuals who have similar internal and external characteristics and are mutually attractedAlso compared inertia equalopposite reactionHe regarded his psychology as objective but Pavlovs proved to be more so and therefore Bekhterevs psychology did not gain as much popularity as his
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