Chapter 7 M/C (with answers).pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Exam Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) In Bernstein and Robertson's study, a patient, RM, with the symptoms of Balint's syndrome showed 1) "illusory conjunctions" involving movement, shape and color. Accuracy in reporting one feature did not predict accuracy in reporting the other features. However the results suggest that A) RM had brain damage that reversible. B) other systems besides the visual system were involved in the symptoms. C) these features are interdependent and are registered in the same region of the brain. D) these features are independently registered by the visual system. E) RM had damage to the primary visual cortex. 2) Ball and Sekular trained people to detect very small movements by exposing them to unidirectional 2) movement. They found that their subjects A) did not learn this task very well. B) did very well in detecting movement in the direction in which they were trained. C) did very well in detecting movement opposite to the direction in which they were trained. D) were better at detecting larger movements than smaller movements. E) did very well in detecting movement in any direction. 3) __________ is to monocular cues for depth as __________ is to binocular cues. 3) A) Convergence; elevation B) Motion parallax; convergence C) Convergence; divergence D) Retinal disparity; pictorial cues E) Texture; shading 4) Physical features of an object that help distinguish it from other stimuli are called 4) A) defining characteristics. B) identifying codes. C) object signatures. D) distinctive features. E) prototypes. 1 5) Biederman proposed that object recognition involves a basic set of perceptual primitive he called 5) A) perceptrons. B) logons. C) morphons. D) baseons. E) geons. 6) Which cue in depth perception does not tell us much about the absolute distance to an object but 6) does tell us which parts of the object are closer or further away? A) elevation B) texture C) haze D) shading E) interposition 7) Reisenhuber & Poggio's neutral network model of human object perception proposes connections 7) between layers of neurons that can be either A) horizontal or lateral. B) additive or maximum input. C) small or large. D) subtractive or additive. E) top-down or bottom up- 8) _________ is the binocular cue in depth perception where the images of objects at different 8) distances will fall on the visual receptors in the eyes at slightly different locations. A) Convergence B) Conjugation C) Divergence D) Stereopsis E) Retinal disparity 9) Template is to __________ as prototype is to __________. 9) A) general; specific B) hypothetical; concrete C) rigid; flexible D) realistic; idealized E) pattern; element 2 10) People with __________ can recognize individual objects when they look directly at them but are 10) unable to identify their location. A) visual agnosia B) achromatopsia C) visual neglect D) Balint's syndrome E) prosopagnosia 11) The textbook's conclusion is that be a 11) A) series of parallel processors. B) parallel processor that uses both prototypes and templates to recognize objects. C) serial processor that uses prototypes to recognize patterns. D) general purpose serial computer. E) parallel processor made up of collections of neural networks. 12) A person walking around in a room where you are sitting is sometimes seen from the front, the 12) back, or the side. Yet despite these quite different images, you perceive that the person remains the same one. This is an example of the principles of A) absolute shape. B) shape constancy. C) profile symmetry. D) shape reference. E) person constancy. 13) While looking out a window, you can make out the details of nearby objects very easily. As you 13) look at objects farther away, you have a more difficult time in making out the same details. This situation illustrates the cue to depth called A) retinal disparity. B) interposition. C) texture. D) shading. E) linear perspective. 3 14) In research that first exposed participants to a kitchen scene, then to pictures of objects that were 14) presented very bfiefly A) non -itchen items were recognized more often. B) kitchen objects were recognized only if they had short names, such as "cup." C) non -itchen objects were never recognized. D) kitchen and non k-tchen objects were recognized equally well. E) kitchen items were recognized more often. 15) Cross-cultural studies of color names in a wide range of languages concluded that 15) A) nonfocal colors reflect nature, but focal colors reflect cultural conventions. B) color names are purely cultural conventions. C) the physiology of the visual system and cultural conventions determine the selection of color names. D) with the exception of black and white, the selection of focal colors varied among cultures. 16) The fact that our ability to locate sound sources interacts with our visual system is demonstrated by 16) the A) phi phenomenon. B) ventriloquism effect. C) waterfall phenomenon. D) illusory conjunction. E) Doppler effect. 17) When viewing nearby objects, the angle between the eyes is __________ when viewing distant 17) objects. A) the same as B) about the same size as C) slightly smaller than D) larger than E) much smaller than 18) Hubel and Wiesel determined that the geographic map of the retina in the primary visual cortex 18) A) represented all parts of the visual field equally. B) involved one cortical cell per rod or cone. C) involved one module for each small portion of the visual field. D) overrepresented the center of the visual field. E) underrepresented the center of the visual field. 4 19) Damage to the first level of the visual association cortex impairs which of the following? 19) A) visual acuity B) shape of objects C) tracking moving objects D) location of objects E) color of objects 20) When the contrast between several lines and their background was changed at the same time, 20) research participants saw groups of lines as _________. The researchers termed this a _________ effect, after the Gestalt law of common fate. A) belonging together; common line B) belonging together; common tempo C) moving away from each other; common contrast D) merging with each other; fusion E) moving together; common motion 21) __________ is to focal color as __________ is to nonfocal color. 21) A) Hazel; blue B) Turquoise; cranberry C) Peach; orange D) Yellow; purple E) Green; magenta 22) Compared to humans, it takes a computer __________ to recognize a face than it does to recognize 22) a simple geometric pattern. A) much longer B) slightly more time C) much less time D) about the same amount of time E) slightly less time 23) If the linguistic relativity hypothesis were valid, then, 23) A) how people perceive objects in the environment should be similar. B) the rules of language should be similar across cultures. C) all cultures should have similar names for things in their environment. D) how something is perceived should reflect unique cultural conventions. E) different culture will consider language more or less important. 5 24) One criticism of artificial intelligence mentioned in the textbood is that 24) A) computers cannot solve complex problems as fast as humans can. B) computer programs often include multiple paths to the solution of a problem. C) computers are too complex to be an accurate model of human thought. D) a computer may provide the same answer to a problem that a human would but derive the solution in a different way than a human would. E) computing information is not the same as processing information. 25) The Gestalt law of similarity states that 25) A) elements with a similar appearance will be perceived as part of the same object. B) similar objects will be perceived as closer to each other than different objects. C) nearer objects are perceived as being smaller than more distant objects. D) similar objects may differ with respect to contour. E) similar objects are more easily perceived than different objects. 26) The paper in the book that Jerome is reading appears to be white regardless of whether he is 26) reading the book outdoors or inside his apartment and regardless of whether he is sitting in the shade, in the sun, or under a lamp. Jerome perception of the color of the paper is an example of the principle called A) haze. B) shading. C) perceptual invariance. D) the illumination illusion. E) brightness constancy. 27) One form of visual illusion is the __________, which requires multiple fixations before the illusion 27) is recognized as such. A) impossible figure B) Doppler effect C) ventriloquism effect D) illusory conjunction 28) The key to the perception of impossible figures is that the information from one fixation is 28) _________ by the information the next fixation provides. A) reduced B) modified C) erased D) contradicted E) enlarged 6 29) Objects nearest the horizon appear __________ than other objects. 29) A) farther away B) slightly closer C) much closer D) more detailed E) larger 30) In terms of visual perception, the brain appears to function much like a(n) __________ processor. 30) A) digital B) run down C) serial D) input -utput E) parallel 31) _________ is a form of _________. 31) A) Prosopagnosia; visual agnosia B) Visual agnosia; achromatopsia C) Achromatopsia; prosopagnosia D) Achromatopsia; Balint's syndrome E) Balint's syndrome; achromatopsia 32) The binding problem refers to 32) A) the interconnection of the first and second levels of visual association. B) linking perceptual experience from childhood to that in adulthood. C) determining when enough information has been combined to produce object recognition. D) the brain's ability to combine information from two or more sensory systems. E) combining information from successive visual fixations. 33) Computers are a useful source of models of cognitive processes because they 33) A) their four major components correspond to particular regions of the brain. B) are flexible and powerful. C) process information in parallel. D) operate as quickly as the brain. 7 34) The major advocate of the linguistic relativity hypothesis was 34) A) Gladstone. B) Roberson. C) Whorf. D) Rosch. E) Magnus. 35) As you look down the road, the white lines that mark its exterior boundaries seem to converge in 35) the distance. As the lines appear to become closer to each other, they look farther away. This cue to depth is called A) retinal disparity. B) texture. C) linear perspective. D) convergence. E) haze. 36) A person with Balint's syndrome would likely have brain damage in the 36) A) visual association cortex of the temporal lobe. B) primary visual cortex. C) visual association cortex of the posterior occipital lobes. D) first level of the visual association cortex. E) visual association cortex of both posterior lobes. 37) Serial is to _________ as parallel is to _________. 37) A) neural networks; linear networks B) neural networks; computers C) consecutive; simultaneous D) perception; cognition E) brains; computers 38) A perception is to __________ as a sensation is to __________. 38) A) the scene; the elements B) feeling; knowledge C) the part; the whole D) the elements; the scene E) details; finished product 8 39) The linguistic relativity hypothesis states that language 39) A) is the most important component of cultural identity. B) imperfectly reflects abstract ideas and concepts. C) is the best indicator of the potential for cultural development. D) not only expresses ideas and perceptions but shapes them as well. 40) Our perception of the wind blowing in a field of wheat illustrates the Gestalt law of 40) A) proximity. B) closure. C) common fate. D) similarity. 41) The template model of pattern recognition states that incoming patterns of visual stimulation 41) A) quickly decay and must be refreshed. B) are combined with each other to form new patterns. C) are analyzed to determine their simplest elements. D) are compared to patterns already stored in memory. E) must first be grouped together before tehy are analyzed. 42) People with __________ are unable to recognize an object even though they have normal visual 42) acuity and can still perceive color, movement, and fine details. A) Balint's syndrome B) visual agnosia C) prosopagnosia D) achromatopsia E) visual neglect 43) A stereoscope can be used to demonstrate the role of __________ in depth perception. 43) A) backward masking B) motion parallax C) retinal disparity D) negative afterimages 44) Damage to the primary visual cortex results in 44) A) Balint's syndrome. B) visual agnosia. C) prosopagnosia. D) a limited visual field but good perceptual ability. E) achromatopsia. 9 45) As you look out a window at objects several miles away, they appear much less distinct than 45) nearby objects. This example describes the monocular cue known as A) linear perspective. B) haze. C) interposition. D) retinal disparity. E) shading. 46) Which of the following brain regions is closely associated with the orientation and spatial 46) frequency of lines? A) the first level of the association cortex in the occipital lobe B) the second level of the association cortex in the temporal lobe C) the second level of the association cortex in the parietal lobe D) the second level of the association cortex in the frontal lobe E) the primary visual cortex 47) The use of context in perception is an example of 47) A) bottom u- processing. B) trial and error. C) serial processing. D) top -own processing. 48) Suppose that you are lying on your back in the middle of a big grassy field watching a flock of 48) geese fly overhead against a backdrop of big fluffy clouds. In this scene, psychologists would consider the __________ to be the "ground." A) field B) geese C) clouds D) grass E) geese and clouds 49) If you gently push on the side of your eye with your finger the scene before you will appear 49) A) to move because the eye muscles did not produce the movement. B) to blur and then clear with each press as the shape of the eye is distorted. C) to move because the images in the foreground remain stable while the background shifts.. D) stable because brain mechanisms compensate for the eye's movements. E) stable because the image on the retina does not move. 10 50) The independent variable in Neisser's (1964) study on distinctive features was 50) A) how fast subjects could locate particular letters in a string of letters. B) how many letters the subjects could recognize in a short time interval. C) the reading levels of the participants. D) the degree of similarity of the target letter to the letters with which it was grouped. E) how many distinctive letters the subjects could recognize. 51) When a batter in a baseball game is in the batter's box, which part of the visual association area is 51) specifically involved in perceiving the location of the ball just before the batter swings the bat? A) the visual association cortex of the frontal lobe B) the visual association cortex of the parietal lobe C) the first level of the visual association cortex D) the visual association cortex of the occipital lobe E) the visual association cortex of the temporal lobe 52) The model of cognitive functioning that is most directly reflects the way the brain seems to be 52) constructed is the __________ model. A) neural network B) parallel processing C) digital computer D) serial processing E) analog processing 53) Suppose that when you look at a short wooden post in front of you and a tree 100 meters away, the 53) images that fall on your retina are the same size for both objects. However, you can tell which object is more distant because of the changing angle between your eyes as you focus on each one. This illustrates the binocular cue known as A) convergence. B) divergence. C) retinal disparity. D) texture. E) conjugation. 11 54) Lee's vision is completely in shades of black and white with no perception of other hues. He has a 54) condition termed _________ resulting from damage to _________. A) Balint's syndrome; second level of the visual association cortex B) achromatopsia; the second level of the visual association cortex C) prosopagnosia; the first level of the visual association cortex. D) visual agnosia; the primary visual cortex E) achromatopsia; first level of the visual association cortex 55) The optic nerves send visual information to the __________, which, in turn, sends it to the 55) __________. A) cerebellum; occipital lobe B) hypothalamus; primary visual cortex C) thalamus; primary visual cortex D) limbic system; occipital lobe E) cingulate gyrus; occipital cortex 56) Research by Seagall and colleagues found that members of _________ cultures were more 56) susceptible to the Mu¨ler-Lyer illusion. A) "fabricated" B) agrarian C) native D) "carpentered" E) primitive 57) The act of perceiving 57) A) involves sensing, evaluating and perceiving. B) occurs primarily in mammals. C) actually involves two steps, sensing and perceiving. D) involves considerable planning and forethought. E) is rapid, automatic, and unconscious. 58) The notion that a culture's language affects and perception is called the __________ hypothesis. 58) A) language structure B) speech-thought C) linguistic relativity D) ecological linguistic E) universal language 12 59) An important difficulty with the distinctive features model of perception is 59) A) the need for an almost limitless number of special circuits for feature detection. B) that the effects of context receive too much weight. C) that the perception of complex patterns may occur faster than the perception of simpler patterns. D) the lack of an acceptable operational definition of "distinctive feature." 60) Most cognitive psychologists prefer the prototype model of perception to the template model of 60) perception because prototypes are A) are actual rather than idealized patterns. B) more flexible than templates. C) consistent with Gestalt laws of organization. D) representations of only one object. 61) RM, the patient whose "illusory conjunctions" were Bernstein and Robertson, had damage to the 61) second level of the visual association cortex in the _________ lobe suggesting its role in binding features as part of object recognition. A) occipital B) frontal C) prefrontal D) parietal E) occipital 62) Which of the following brain regions is closely associated with the perception of three di-ensional 62) forms? A) the second level of the association cortex in the frontal lobe B) the second level of the association cortex in the temporal lobe C) the first level of the association cortex in the occipital lobe D) the primary visual cortex E) the second level of the association cortex in the parietal lobe 63) Despite changes in the size of the retinal image, the same object viewed near and far does not 63) appear to grow larger and smaller. This perceptual principle is known as A) distance constancy. B) size constancy. C) size relativity. D) depth invariance. E) distance relativity. 13 64) SIRD stereograms produce the perception of a 3 dim-nsional object because 64) A) they enhance linear perspective. B) each eye receives a slightly different image of the visual scene. C) the convergence of the eyes. D) objects are interposed. E) the visual fields converge. 65) Gestalt psychologists argued that our visual system analyses 65) A) the background of the visual object. B) individual differences in the modules of the primary visual cortex. C) relationships among elements of the visual object. D) figure and ground elements in the visual array. E) the specific elements of a visual object. 66) The visual cortex consists of the primary area and two levels of association cortex, one 66) A) in back of the primary area and the other in front of it. B) that is anterior to the primary area and the other in the frontal lobe. C) that surrounds the primary area and the other divided between the parietal and temporal lobes. D) posterior to the primary area and the other anterior to. E) surrounding the primary area and the other in the outer perimeter of the occipital lobe. 67) The Gestalt law of good continuation states that 67) A) incomplete figures may suddenly be perceived as complete. B) elements located closest to each other are perceived as belonging to the same figure. C) people tend to fill in figures that have gaps in their outline. D) our eyes tend to follow the most similar elements in a figure. E) the outline of a figure will continue in the simplest or most predictable direction. 68) Balint's syndrome is to _________ as achromatopsia is to _________. 68) A) location; color B) location; faces C) faces; objects D) faces; color E) color; location 14 69) The first level of the visual association cortex receives information about all of the following 69) EXCEPT: A) the location of objects. B) the relative movements of objects. C) color. D) the orientation of lines. E) the spatial frequency of lines and edges. 70) Which monocular cue in depth perception cannot be represented realistically in a drawing? 70) A) texture B) elevation C) interposition D) motion parallax 71) Neisser's research involving subjects searching for particular letters in long strings of similar or 71) dissimilar letters suggested that A) a stimulus with uncommon features is more readily identified in a group of otherwise similar stimuli. B) novel stimuli are easily identifiable. C) stimuli that are grouped together are seen as a unit. D) it is easier to detect a stimulus that is grouped with other similar stimuli. E) stimuli with common features are recognized as being similar. 72) A prototype is 72) A) a common template. B) an idealized pattern that can be used flexibly. C) the result of a match with a template. D) a hypothetical set of rules for specifying an object. E) a series of templates. 73) The creation of computer programs to simulate human mental functions is called 73) A) parallel processing. B) neural networking. C) serial processing. D) artificial intelligence. E) computer modeling. 15 74) Computers based on the serial processing of information 74) A) can solve multiple problems simultaneously. B) provide better models of human information processing. C) would be much slower than a human brain that utilized serial processing. D) require more time to execute complex tasks than simpler ones. E) function much like the human brain does. 75) Bottom -p processing is to __________ as top d-wn processing is to __________. 75) A) visual perception; pattern recognition B) context-driven; feature-driven C) pattern recognition; visual perception D) parallel processing; serial processing E) featur- driven; context-driven 76) To use a binocular cue in depth perception, 76) A) the visual stimulus must be in one side of the visual field. B) the visual fields of both eyes must overlap. C) stimuli in the environment must be interposed. D) we must be viewing objects in the distance. E) the eyes must be located on the sides of the head. 77) Which monocular cue to depth perception depends on our own movement? 77) A) Interposition B) Linear perspective C) Elevation D) Motion parallax E) Convergence 78) Which of the following brain regions is closely associated with the location and movement of an 78) object in 3 dimensions? A) the second level of the association cortex in the frontal lobe B) the second level of the association cortex in the parietal lobe C) the first level of the association cortex in the occipital lobe D) the second level of the association cortex in the temporal lobe E) the primary visual cortex 16 79) Which of the following findings is not predicted by the distinctive features model of visual pattern 79) recognition? A) More complex patterns take less time to recognize. B) Pattern recognition involves analysis and synthesis. C) It is easy to detect simple variations of patterns because of the basic features they share. D) Features recognition is part of pattern recognition. E) Placing an object among others with which it shares common features essentially camouflages it. 80) Size constancy over different distances depends on 80) A) the distance between the viewer and the object. B) the viewer's knowledge of the actual size of the object. C) the size of the retinal image. D) viewing the object from different angles. E) the rate at which the distance between the viewer and the object is changing. 81) Space enclosed by a continuous boundary will most likely be perceived as 81) A) background. B) a figure. C) a figure-ground reversal. D) a ground. E) having no background. 82) As he walked in the woods, Thom recognized the tree in front of him as a maple. In this example, 82) Thom was most likely using a(n) __________, a hypothetical idealized pattern of a maple tree. A) template B) prototype C) model D) distinctive feature E) exemplar 83) If you were to produce a TV ad for laundry detergent, you could make a white T shi-t look whiter 83) by placing it A) next to a another white T -hirt that is placed on a lighter background. B) next to another white T-shirt that is placed on a darker background. C) on a gray background. D) on a very bright white background. E) on any background that is illuminated by bright sunlight. 17 84) According to neutral network theory, visual perception to consists of a hierarchy of analyses 84) A) that are identical. B) in three distinct levels. C) that progress from simple to complex. D) that first involve templates, then prototypes, then distinctive features. E) that must be continuously reassembled. 85) Paulina was unable to recognize her husband by sight even though she could identify him by his 85) voice as soon as he spoke. She was displaying the symptoms of A) achromatopsia. B) prosopagnosia. C) deuteranopia D) visual neglect. E) Balint's syndrome. 86) An impossible figure seems possible because its details 86) A) are two -imensional. B) are minimal. C) can be perceived in a single glance. D) cannot be perceived in a single glance. E) are three-dimensional. 87) Convergence is a cue for distance perception that
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