MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) Hypnotized eyewitnesses 1)
A) remember events accurately.
B) are sometimes be induced to remember false information.
C) do not recall useful details.
D) have insight and abilities they do not possess when not hypnotized.
2) Research on the ti- -f the-tongue phenomenon has confirmed that it 2)
A) is common.
B) usually involves adjectives and adverbs.
C) rarely involves proper names.
D) occurs about twice a week.
E) is more frequent among younger people than older people.
3) Echoic memory's longer duration means that is it useful in processing 3)
A) unfamiliar odors.
B) spoken language.
C) barely audible sounds.
D) sudden sounds.
E) visual images.
4) According to Bartlett, people tend to recall a story based on_________. 4)
C) character in the story
D) the story's similarity to other stories
5) Which of the following is NOT a danger of attempts at hypnotic memory enhancement? 5)
A) the increase in a person's willingness to tell the truth
B) the modification of existing memories
C) the chance that a false memory could be implanted
D) witnesses become more suggestible.
E) the increase in a person's confidence in his or her memory
1 6) Memories of which we are aware are called __________ memories. 6)
7) Anterograde amnesia results from damage to the 7)
A) hippocampus. B) cortical association areas.
C) motor areas. D) frontal lobes.
8) Which of the following words, when used in the question, "How fast were the cars going when one 8)
of them __________ into the other?" likely would result in the greatest estimate by an eyewitness to
A) contacted B) collided C) bumped D) smashed E) hit
9) Trying to remember your former telephone number after having become used to your new number 9)
A) retroactive interference.
B) proactive interference.
C) implicit forgetting.
E) anterograde interference.
10) Patrick wrote a shopping list then left it at home on the kitchen counter. Now, at the supermarket, 10)
the only items he can remember are the first two on the list. This is an example of
A) the recency effect.
B) encoding specificity.
C) the primacy effect.
E) consolidation hypothesis.
11) Bahrick's studies of rea- life memories showed that his subjects' memory for Spanish vocabulary 11)
A) very durable after about 3 years.
B) mainly consisted of false memory.
C) virtually nonexistent after 50 years.
D) better after many years than immediately following high school.
E) frequently confused with that from other languages they studied.
2 12) Which of the following statements is FALSE? 12)
A) A chunk contains 7 plus or minus 2 items.
B) Chunking may be accomplished through the use of rules.
C) Chunking is a form of encoding information.
D) The capacity of short -erm memory depends on the meaning of the information it contains.
E) Chunking creates meaningful units of information.
13) Memories of which we are unaware are called __________ memories. 13)
14) The Stroop effect provides evidence for 14)
A) the value of introspection in remembering..
B) automatic processes involved in remembering.
C) conscious processes involved in remembering.
D) failure to suppress the active processes involved in remembering.
E) active processes involved in remembering.
15) Mnemonic systems 15)
A) are useful for all kinds of information.
B) make information more elaborate.
C) simplify information.
D) are often more time consuming to learn than the information itself.
16) Cale and Kyle were born deaf. Cale speaks fairly well; Kyle doesn't. If they were to be given a list of 16)
letters to look at briefly and then write down, Cale would most likely make __________ errors than
A) more articulatory
B) the same number of articulatory and acoustical
C) fewer articulatory
D) more visual
E) fewer visual
3 17) According to the levels- - processing model, a subject will more easily recall the word 17)
"watch'"after processing which of the following statements?
A) "That is my watch."
B) "Watch me jump in the water."
C) "The watch battery was dead."
D) "I saw the watch."
E) "The young sailor traveled thousands of miles to retrieve his grandfather's valuable watch."
18) Maguire and colleagues' research with London cab drivers showed a positive correlation between 18)
volume of the posterior hipposcampus and the
A) size of the cab.
B) cabdriver's years of experience.
C) cabdriver's personality.
D) level of the cabdriver's education.
E) cabdriver's gender.
19) If you want to learn information, the best time to make it meaningful is __________ encoding. 19)
A) at least one hour after
B) at least one hour before
D) just after
E) There is no "best time" to make the information to be learned meaningful.
20) If you read a list of words that are all related to the same topic, the context of the list can lead to20)
A) illusory mnemonics.
B) retrograde amnesia.
C) tip- - the -ongue phenomenon.
D) anterograde amnesia.
E) false memories.
21) Salaam is studying a list of psychology terms by associating each of them to everyday experience. 21)
In this way she is trying to make the terms as relevant as possible to her life. Her method of
studying illustrates __________ rehearsal.
4 22) In the _________ mnemonic system, you memorize a list of items by putting them into a coherent 22)
A) deep processing
C) method of loci
23) Automatic processing is to __________ as effortful processing is to __________. 23)
A) remembering your name; remembering the capital of Zimbabwe
B) frequency, place, and time; shallow and deep processing
C) remembering the name of a close friend; textbook learning
D) difficult; easy
24) The famous case of the patient H.M. demonstrates 24)
A) retrograde amnesia.
B) anterograde amnesia.
C) loss of short-term memory.
D) failure of consolidation.
E) loss of explicit memory.
25) Loftus's research on eyewitness testimony showed that 25)
A) retrieval cues can bias eyewitness accounts.
B) women are generally more accurate eyewitnesses than men.
C) eyewitness testimony is very accurate regardless of pretrial investigation.
D) eyewitness testimony is not influenced by encoding specificity.
E) eyewitness testimony is highly resistant to leading questions.
26) In Sperling's research, if the tone was delayed for more than one second, the participants' recall of 26)
A) at first improved and then declined.
B) drastically improved.
C) was hampered.
D) at first declined and then improved.
E) slightly improved.
5 27) Each of the following is characteristics of lo-g term memory EXCEPT: 27)
A) involves connections between sensory and motor cortexes.
B) a fixed chunk size.
C) involves all sensory systems.
D) active and passive.
E) the information it contains remains relatively stable.
28) While writing an exam, you write the word "receive." Then you hesitate over the order of the 28)
vowels in that word. In order to clarify the situation you recall and recite in your head the rhyme "I
before E except after C." Which aspect of phonological short-term memory does this illustrate?
A) the primacy and effect
C) subvocal articulation
D) echoic memory
E) iconic memory
29) Carlos saw a horse in a pasture. The image he has of the horse in his visual working memory 29)
A) is limited by his ability to encode the image of this particular horse in precise words.
B) is a combination of his version of a prototypical horse and the specific details of this particular
C) lacks the specific details of this particular horse.
D) is just like a photograph of the horse.
E) is essentially the same image that his phonological shor- term memory contains.
30) You know that each chapter in your text contains a chapter preview and that the key terms in each 30)
chapter are found at the end of the chapter. This information was likely encoded into your memory
through __________ processing.
6 31) When you study for a test by reading and rereading your textbook, making an outline of the 31)
chapter, and going over (and over) the key terms in the chapter, you are encoding information
using __________ processing.
32) Elaborative is to _________ as maintenance is to _________. 32)
A) shallow; superficial
B) shor- term; long-term
C) association; repetition
D) automatic; effortful
E) consolidation; encoding
33) Level of processing seems to have more influence on _________ memory, whereas retrieval cues 33)
seem to have more influence on _________ memory.
A) explicit; implicit
B) procedural; implicit
C) declarative; semantic
D) episodic; declarative
E) semantic; explicit
34) Which of the following is a characteristic of the p-g word method? 34)
A) It is usually the first mnemonic system that people learn.
B) It requires first memorizing a list of words that mean the same thing.
C) It entails using familiar items already in memory.
D) It involves attaching images of items to be remembered to of familiar locations already in
E) It is one of the few mnemonic systems that does not involve imagery.
35) Arlo has a big exam in psychology coming up next week. Based on what you know about retrieval 35)
cues, you correctly advise him to
A) read each chapter thoroughly.
B) make notes from each chapter, and then study the notes.
C) study all of the key terms and concepts in each of the chapters.
D) do as much effortful processing as possible.
E) study for the exam in the classroom in which he will take the exam.
7 36) Phonological short-term memory may involve activity in the auditory association cortex as well as 36)
the __________ association cortex.
37) Keyshaun witnessed a store robbery. To help him remember the details of the incident, a 37)
psychologist hypnotizes Keyshaun and asks him to visualize the events that occurred and
"zoom -n" or '"freeze the frame" in order to recall details. This method of memory enhancement is
A) hypnotic visualization.
C) the television technique.
D) the cognitive interview.
E) guided memory.
38) If you were to asked what the capital of Texas is, you would need to process information that is 38)
currently stored in your __________ memory
C) long -erm
39) The inability to form new long-term memories AFTER brain damage occurs is called __________ 39)
8 40) Which of the following is NOT a criticism of the leve- -of processing model? 40)
A) The model has not produced further research on the nature of long -erm memory.
B) Researchers cannot control the depth to which their subjects process information.
C) The distinction between shallow and deep processing has never been clearly defined.
D) Memory is not a directly observable phenomenon.
E) Shallow processing does not always imply a poor memory.
41) Rogoff and colleagues found that once certain cultural biases in educational training were 41)
controlled, children living in Western and no- Western cultures performed similarly in
A) memorizing long lists of numbers.
B) reconstructing the events that took place at the scene of an accident.
C) memorizing long lists of factual information.
D) memorizing long lists of surnames.
E) reconstructing a visual scene from memory.
42) Unvoiced speech utterances are called 42)
A) unvoiced acoustics.
B) subvocal articulations.
C) subvocal coding.
D) unvoiced articulations.
E) subvocal phrasings.
43) If you remembered a list of items by associating each item with the rhyme "one is a bun, two is a 43)
shoe, three is a tree..." and so on, you would be using the
A) narrative technique.
B) peg -ord method.
C) method of loci.
D) method of deep processing.
E) geographic method.
44) Which of the following statements about two hippocampus is FALSE? 44)
A) In knockout mice, the new growth of GABA receptors enhances performance in the Morris
B) The hippocampus continues to produce new neurons in adulthood.
C) The loss of NMDA receptors in hippocampus regions reduces spatial memory in knockout
D) Hippocampus production of new neurons occurred more readily when learning in the Morris
water maze did not recognize external landmarks.
E) New neutronal growth in the hippocampus accompanies learning in the Morris water maze.
9 45) Memory for personal events are stored is called 45)
A) implicit memory.
B) inherent memory.
C) semantic memory.
D) working memory.
E) episodic memory.
46) __________ processing involves using either shallow or deep processing to rehearse information. 46)
47) Participants in Shepard and Metzler's research reported that, to decide whether the geometric 47)
shapes were identical, they
A) rotated an image of one of the shapes in their heads.
B) estimated the number of steps that would be required in order to alter one of the shapes to
make it identical to the other.
C) alternately close one eye then the other to see if the images looked different
D) compared the numbers of blocks in each shape.
E) imagined what each shape would look like if it was rotated 90 degrees.
48) Anterograde amnesia creates greater deficits in _________ memory than in _________ memory. 48)
A) implicit; explicit
B) semantic; episodic
C) short-term; long -erm
D) explicit; implicit
E) procedural; declarative
49) The most important reason that information in short t-rm memory is lost is 49)
A) insufficient rehearsal. B) displacement.
C) our inability to retrieve it. D) decay.
10 50) Failure to retrieve information when more recently learned information interferes is called 50)
A) proactive interference.
B) motivated forgetting.
C) retrograde interference.
E) retroactive interference.
51) Research suggests that the words are easier to learn if they are sung than merely spoken because 51)
A) singing words makes processing automatic.
B) words have a deeper meaning if they are sung.
C) a melody provides a structure for the words.
D) a song speeds up the rate at which the words are heard and thus enhances chunking.
E) singing provides a slower rate of presentation and thus aids encoding.
52) The key to the effectiveness of any mnemonic system is that it 52)
A) decreases the amount of total information to be stored.
B) replaces effortful processing with automatic processing.
C) divides information into separate units.
D) makes use of information already stored in memory.
E) simplifies the information to be remembered.
53) In terms of memory for written material having, the title of a passage, essay, or book 53)
A) assures that the encoding will be automatic.
B) can aid encoding if it is available before processing the material.
C) usually interference with encoding.
D) can aid encoding if it is available soon after processing the material.
E) is a form of maintenance rehearsal.
54) Hypnosis can only enhance people's __________, not their __________. 54)
A) memory; cooperation B) recollection; memory
C) recollection; confidence D) memory; susceptibility
11 55) Research by Schmolck and colleagues showed that even flashbulb memories eventually become 55)
prone to error, particularly in recalling the
A) original feelings.
B) original source of the information.
C) people involved.
D) time frame.
E) places involved.
56) Episodic memory and semantic memory 56)
A) exist for each sensory modality.
B) involve different kinds of information.
C) are separate, independent memory systems.
D) store the same information in different ways.
57) Suppose that you have been given a short list of words to memorize. After you have read through 57)
the list once, you discover that you can remember the last four words easily. This result is an
A) the recency effect.
B) proactive remembering.
C) Peterson and Peterson is recall procedure.
D) the chunking procedure.
E) the primacy effect.
58) Implicit memory is to __________ memory as explicit memory is to __________ memory. 58)
A) episodic; semantic
B) declarative; procedural
C) procedural; semantic
D) elaborative; maintenance
E) procedural; declarative
59) According to the traditional view of memory, consolidation refers to the transfer of information 59)
from __________ memory to __________ memory.
A) iconic; echoic
B) long -erm; short -erm
C) sensory; short-term
D) short-term; long -erm
E) sensory; long -erm
12 60) Which of the following is NOT a part of Craik and Lockhart's levels- - processing model? 60)
A) A central processor analyzes information on different levels.
B) Levels of processing are specific to separate sensory systems.
C) The levels of processing are arranged hierarchically.
D) Attention controls the level of processing.
E) Memory is a by p-oduct of perceptual analysis.
61) Cognitive psychologists take two approaches to understanding the structure of memory -- one 61)
_________ and the other __________.
A) neuroscientific; physiological
B) cognitive; motivational
C) physiological; literal
D) cognitive; metaphorical
E) physiological; metaphorical
62) Your favorite singer has just stopped singing and for a second or so you can still hear his voice 62)
exactly as he sang the last line. Which type of memory is in operation here?
63) Conscious processing of information has a strong effect on __________ memory. 63)
64) Ebbinghaus's pioneering memory research included all of the following EXCEPT: 64)
A) the memorization of lists.
B) English - -German translation.
C) himself as participant.
D) the use of nonsense syllables.
E) relearning lists after variable delays.
13 65) The idea that how we encode information may affect our ability to later retrieve it is termed 65)
A) encoding salience.
B) semantic encoding.
C) encoding directiveness.
D) procedural differentiation.
E) encoding specificity.
66) Mcnamara and Scott showed that people can improve their short te-m memory for unrelated 66)
words by imaging
A) equivalent words.
B) a story involving the words.
C) rhyming words.
D) clapping when each word was read.
E) repeating the words aloud.
67) According to Daniel Schacter the "commission sins" of memory include each of the following 67)
68) The fact that congenitally deaf people sometimes make acoustical errors when they repeat letters 68)
presented to them on a screen implies that
A) the short-term memory of deaf people is less accurate than that of people who can hear.
B) proactive inhibition is responsible for most errors in sho-t term memory.
C) phonological short -erm memory uses an articulatory code.
D) auditory information fades faster than visual information.
69) Mr. Tilson, who is now in his 80s, often reflects on his life's experiences. These experiences are a 69)
part of Mr. Tilson's __________ memory.
14 70) The notion that it is how we encode information that determines our ability to retrieve it later is 70)
called the encoding _________ principle.
71) Which region of the brain is proportionally larger in avian and rodent species that store food for 71)
C) association cortex
D) frontal lobes
E) parietal lobes
72) Retrieval cues have a more important effect on information stored in _________ memory. 72)
73) If you were asked to come up with a synonym for the worddiverse, you would attempt to retrieve 73)
the relevant information from your __________ memory.
A) implicit B) episodic C) inherent D) semantic E) working
74) Jaunae has been staring at a f- - in t-e blank question on an exam trying to remember the term. 74)
She knows it begins with "B" but can't seem to bring the word itself to mind. She is showing
__________ and has a __________ percent chance of coming up with the right answer.
A) the tip- - the-tongue phenomenon; 50
B) the tip- - the-tongue phenomenon; 100
C) the Stroop effect; 0
D) retrograde amnesia; 0
E) anterograde amnesia; 100
15 75) To prevent the participants in their experiment from rehearsing information, Peterson and Peterson 75)
A) taught their participants to use mnemonic devices incorrectly.
B) reduced the amount of time between the presentation of the material and subsequent recall.
C) asked participants to count backwards from a given number.
D) used long lists of nonsense syllables.
E) used a partial-report procedure.
76) The case study of the patient K.C., who suffered a close- head injury at age 30, suggests that 76)
semantic and episodic memory
A) are actually the same system.
B) piggyback onto each other.
C) deteriorate at the same rate.
D) are both related to a third underlying memory system.
E) are separate systems in the brain.
77) When Chen Q; wishes to remember something, especially a list of items, she associates each item 77)
with a specific landmark in her neighborhood. Later, when she needs to recall the items, she simply
pictures the landmarks and the corresponding items. She is using the
A) peg -ord method.
B) method of loci.
C) narrative story.
D) geographic method.
E) method of deep processing.
78) Based on Shepard and Metzler's research on mental rotation, which of the following statements is 78)
A) Decision times decreased when one of the shapes was rotated.
B) The degree of rotation had no effect on decision time; only the difference in size affected
C) As the degree of rotation of the shapes increased, decision times increased.
D) Humans are not very accurate in judging whether pairs of geometrical shapes are the same or
E) The rotation of one of the shapes produced more correct answers than rotation of the other
16 79) Which of the following is NOT a cognitive process involved in memory? 79)
80) Echoic memory is important for 80)
A) sound location. B) reading.
C) spelling. D) comprehension of sounds.
81) Craik and Tulving's research using sentences of different complexity suggested that complex 81)
A) do not produce adequate mental imagery for the precise recall of complex information.
B) are more difficult to recall than simple ones.
C) produce more elaboration which leads to better retention of that information that is
D) require the use of both long-term and short t-rm memory, resulting in less precise recall of
the information than simple sentences.
E) produce more elaboration, which leads to less distinctive memories.
82) The cognitive interview approach to interviewing eyewitnesses 82)
A) limits the witness's recall to a single perspective.
B) advocates a clien- centered approach.
C) begins with hypnosis.
D) includes the television technique.
E) encourages the re-creation of the original environment.
83) A major limitation of the use of mnemonic systems is that they 83)
A) do not require elaborative rehearsal.
B) only apply to rea- life situations.
C) are primarily advantageous for memorizing items that can be converted to list form.
D) confuse effortful with automatic processing.
E) are easily confused with each other.
84) People with conduction aphasia have difficulty 84)
A) writing. B) repeating precisely what they hear.
C) following verbal instructions. D) reading aloud.
17 85) The information contained in visual working memory is derived from the immediate environment 85)
A) and short -erm memory.
B) and it largely verbal.
C) and long -erm memory.
D) and auditory working memory.
E) and phonological short t-rm memory.
86) One problem faced by Rogoff and colleagues in their cross -ultural studies of children's memory 86)
A) some of the cohorts had lived through different time periods and so had very different
B) children in some cultures are smarter than children in other cultures.
C) the memory tests they used had to be specific to a culture.
D) some children liked to memorize and other didn't.
E) the educational experiences of children living in one culture may be different from those in
87) As she was driving to work, Margie was in a serious auto accident. When she woke up in the 87)
hospital, she could not remember anything about the accident or what had happened to her just
before it took place. Margie's failure of memory illustrates __________ amnesia.
88) One of the key factors of Sperling's experiment was that 88)
A) the tone was presented simultaneously with the material to be recalled.
B) some participants were asked to recall letters following a high-pitched tone and some
following a low -itched tone.
C) participants subjects knew which row of the matrix to recall only after the material was
D) participants knew which row of the matrix to recall before the material was presented.
E) some participants were allowed to view the material to be recalled longer than the other
18 89) When DeGroot tested the working memories of expert and novice chess players by briefly showing 89)
them chess pieces on a board, experts performed better than novices
A) if they were able to view the placement of the pieces for at least two minutes.
B) regardless of the pattern the pieces are arranged in.
C) when the pieces were ordered as if a game was in progress.
D) only if the pieces were placed in recognizable geometric patterns.
E) only if the pieces were placed randomly on the board.
90) Consolidation involves each of the following EXCEPT: 90)
A) transfer of information from short -erm to long t-rm memory.
B) replacement rather than rehearsal.
C) structural changes in the brain.
D) rehearsal that sustains neural activity.
E) the passage of time.
91) Retrograde amnesia refers to 91)
A) a decrease in the capacity of short-term memory.
B) lack of memory for events that occur immediately following an injury.
C) decreased memory for previously learned information that has decayed over time.
D) lack of memory for newly learned information that is presented together with previously
E) lack of memory for events that occurred just before an injury.
92) Ashley suffers from mild conduction aphasia. This suggests that she 92)
A) can produce words but cannot compose sentences.
B) can talk but not remember what she has said.
C) has difficulty repeating exactly what she hears.
D) cannot understand what others are saying.
E) has difficulty understanding what she hears.
93) Sal has six items on his grocery list. When he was at the grocery store, the other shoppers could 93)
hear him repeating "milk, juice, eggs, soap, chocolate, fruit" over and over again. Sal's behavior is
an example of __________ rehearsal.
19 94) Navigation using internal stimuli to estimate position is termed 94)
A) implicit orientation.
B) kinesthetic learning.
C) dead reckoning.
D) spatial location.
E) maze -ike learning.
95) Explicit is to _________ as implicit is to _________. 95)
A) deep; shallow
B) maintenance; elaborative
C) effortful; automatic
D) automatic; effortful
E) shallow; deep
96) Which of the following lists is the easiest to remember? 96)
97) One way to help yourself remember a list of items is to use the __________, which involves 97)
associating familiar locations with the items to be remembered.
A) narrative story
B) peg-word method
C) method of loci
D) method of deep processing
E) method of meaningful processing
98) Shallow processing involves 98)
A) contextual characteristics