Chapter 1-4 Vocab + Def

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Steve Joordens

CHAPTER 1 Psychology Scientific study of the causes of behaviour; also the application of findings of psychological research to the solution of problems Causal event Event that causes another even to occur Physiological psychology Branch of psychology that studies the physiological basis of behaviour Comparative psychology Branch of psychology that studies the behaviours of a variety of organisms in an attempt to understand the adaptive and functional significance of the behaviours and their relation to evolution Behaviour Analysis Branch of psychology that studies the effect of the environment on behaviour primary, the effects of the consequences of behaviours on the behaviour themselves Behaviour genetic Branch of psychology that studies the role of genetics in behaviour Cognitive psychology Branch of psychology that studies complex behaviours and mental processes such as perception, attention, learning and memory, verbal behaviour, concept formation, and problem solving Cognitive neuroscience Branch of psychology that attempts to understand cognitive psychological functions by studying the brain mechanism that are responsible for them Developmental psychology Branch of psychology that studies the changes in behavioural, perceptual, and cognitive capacities of organisms as a function of age and experience Social psychology Branch of psychology devoted to the study of the effects people have on each others behaviour Personality psychology Branch of psychology that attempts to categorize and understand the causes of individuals differences in patterns of behaviour Evolutionary psychology Branch of psychology that explains behaviour in terms of adaptive advantages that specific behaviours provided during the evolution of a species. Evolutionary psychologists use natural selection as a during principle Cross-cultural psychology Branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on behaviour Clinical psychology Branch of psychology devoted to the investigation and treatment of abnormal behaviour and psychological disorders Animism Belief that all animals and all moving objects possess spirits providing their motive force Reflex Automatic response to a stimulus, such as the blink reflex to the sudden unexpected approach of an object toward the eyes Dualism Philosophical belief that reality consists of mind and matter Model Relatively simple system that works on known principles and is able to do at least some of the things that a more complex system can do Empiricism Philosophical view that all knowledge is obtained through the senses Materialism Philosophical belief that reality can be known only through an understanding of the physical world, of which the mind is a part Doctrine of specific nerve energies Johannes Mullers obersavation that different never fibres convey specific information from one part of the body to the brain of from the brain to one part of the body Experimental ablation Removal or destruction of a portion of the brain of an experimental animal for the purpose of studying the functions of that region Psychophysics Branch of psychology that measures the quantitative relation between physical stimuli and perceptual experience Determinism Doctrine that behaviour is the result of prior events Law of effect Thorndikes observation that stimuli that occur as a consequence of a response can increase or decrease the likelihood of making that response again Structuralism System of experimental psychology that began with Wundt; it emphasized the introspective analysis of sensation and perception Introspection Literally, looking within; in an attempt to describe ones own memories, perceptions, cognitive, processes, or motivation Functionalism Strategy of understanding a species structural or behaviour features by attempting to establish their usefulness with respect to survival and reproductive success Behaviourism Movement in psychology that asserts that the only proper subject matter for scientific study in psychology is observable behavious
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