Chapter 1-4 definitions

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Steve Joordens

PSYA01 MIDTERM NOTES CHAPTER 1 Psychology - Scientific study of the causes of behaviour; also the application of findings of psychological research to the solution of problems Causal event - Event that causes another even to occur Physiological psychology - Branch of psychology that studies the physiological basis of behaviour Comparative psychology - Branch of psychology that studies the behaviours of a variety of organisms in an attempt to understand the adaptive and functional significance of the behaviours and their relation to evolution Behaviour Analysis - Branch of psychology that studies the effect of the environment on behaviour primary, the effects of the consequences of behaviours on the behaviour themselves Behaviour genetic - Branch of psychology that studies the role of genetics in behaviour Cognitive psychology - Branch of psychology that studies complex behaviours and mental processes such as perception, attention, learning and memory, verbal behaviour, concept formation, and problem solving Cognitive neuroscience - Branch of psychology that attempts to understand cognitive psychological functions by studying the brain mechanism Developmental psychology - Branch of psychology that studies the changes in behavioural, perceptual, and cognitive capacities of organisms as a function of age and experience Social psychology - Branch of psychology devoted to the study of the effects people have on each others behaviour Personality psychology - Branch of psychology that attempts to categorize and understand the causes of individuals differences in patterns of behaviour Evolutionary psychology - Branch of psychology that explains behaviour in terms of adaptive advantages that specific behaviours provided during the evolution of a species. Evolutionary psychologists use natural selection as a during principle Cross-cultural psychology - Branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on behaviour Clinical psychology - Branch of psychology devoted to the investigation and treatment of abnormal Animism - Belief that all animals and all moving objects possess spirits providing their motive force Reflex - Automatic response to a stimulus, such as the blink reflex to the sudden unexpected approach of an object toward the eyes Dualism - Philosophical belief that reality consists of mind and matter Model - Relatively simple system that works on known principles and is able to do at least some of the things that a more complex system can do Empiricism - Philosophical view that all knowledge is obtained through the senses Materialism - Philosophical belief that reality can be known only through an understanding of the physical world, of which the mind is a part Doctrine of specific nerve energies - Johannes Mullers obersavation that different never fibres convey specific information from one part of the body to the brain of from the brain to one part of the body Experimental ablation - Removal or destruction of a portion of the brain of an experimental animal for the purpose of studying the functions of that region Psychophysics - Branch of psychology that measures the quantitative relation between physical stimuli and perceptual experience Determinism - Doctrine that behaviour is the result of prior events Law of effect - Thorndikes observation that stimuli that occur as a consequence of a response can increase or decrease the likelihood of making that response again Structuralism - System of experimental psychology that began with Wundt; it emphasized the introspective analysis of sensation and perception Introspection - Literally, looking within; in an attempt to describe ones own memories, perceptions, cognitive, processes, or motivation Functionalism - Strategy of understanding a species structural or behaviour features by attempting to establish their usefulness with respect to survival and reproductive success Behaviourism - Movement in psychology that asserts that the only proper subject matter for scientific study in psychology is observable behaviours Humanistic psychology - Approach to the study of human behaviour that emphasizes human experience, choice, and creativity, slef-realization, and positive growth Gestalt psychology - Movement in psychology that emphasized that cognitive processes could be understood by studying their organization, not their elements Information processing - Approach used by cognitive psychologist to explain the working of the brain; information received through the senses is processed by systems of neurons in the brain CHAPTER 2 Scientific method - Set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained through observational studies or experiments Naturalistic observation - Observation of the behaviour of people or other animals in their natural environments Clinical observation - Observation of the behaviour of people who are undergoing diagnosis or treatment Correlational study - Examination of relations between two or more measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or other animals Experiment - Study in which the researcher changes the value of an independent variable and observes whether this manipulation affects the value of a dependent variable. Only experiments can confirm the existence of cause-and-effect relations among variables Hypothesis - Statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment that tentatively expresses a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more events Theory - Set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena; more encompassing than a hypothesis Case study - Detailed description of an individuals behaviour during the course of clinical treatment or diagnosis Survey study - Study of peoples responses to standardized questions Variable - Anything capable of assuming any of several values Manipulation - Setting the values of an independent variable in an experiment to see whether the value of another variable is affected Experimental group - Group of participants in an experiment, the members of which are exposed to a particular value of the independent variable, which has been manipulated by the researcher Control group - Comparison group used in an experiment, the members of which are exposed to the naturally occurring or zero value of the independent variable Independent variable - Variable that is manipulated in an experiment as a means of determining cause-and-effect relations Dependent variable - Variable that is measure in an experiment Nominal fallacy - False belief that one has explained the causes of a phenomenon by identifying and naming it; for example, believing that one has explained lazy behaviour by attributing it to laziness Operational definition - Definition of a variable in terms of the operations the researcher performs to measure or manipulate it Validity - Degree to which the operational definition of variable accurately reflects the variable it is designed to measure or manipulate Confounding of variables - Inadvertent simultaneous manipulation of more than one variable. The results of an experiment involving confounded variables permit no valid conclusion about cause and effect Counterbalancing - Systematic variation of conditions in an experiment, such as the order of presentation of stimuli, so that different participants encounter them in different orders; prevents confounding of independent variables with time-dependent processes such as habituation or fatigue Reliability - Repeatability of measurement; the likelihood that if the measurement was made again it would yield the same value Interrater reliability - Degree to which two or more independent observers agree in their ratings of another organisms behaviour
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