Textbook and Lecture Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Lecture 01 Chapter 1 -------------------------------------------------------- What is Psychology? - Psychology - A science on behaviour - Psychologists use investigation to find connectors between effect and cause - Casual Events - An event that causes another to occur - Physiological psychology: - Physiological basis of behaviour - Body’s reaction - Comparative psychology: - Different organism studies to understand adaptive and functional significance of behaviours and relation to evolution - Behaviour analysis: - Study of effect of environment on behaviour - Behaviour genetics: - Role of genetics in behaviour www.notesolution.com - Cognitive psychology: - Studies behaviours in general [everything] - Cognitive neuroscience: - Understanding cognition by studying how brain works - Developmental psychology: - Study of mental processes as a function of age and experience. - Social Psychology: - Effects of people on behaviour - Personality Psychology: - Tries to categorize and understand the individual differences in patterns of behaviour and categorize it. - Evolutionary Psychology: - Branch that shows the adaptative advantages that certain behaviours provided during the evolution of a species - Cross cultural psychology: - Culture on behaviour - Clinical psychology: - Investigation and treatment of abnormal behaviour and psych disorders www.notesolution.com -------------------------------------------------------- Growth of psychology - Animiism - First belief that animals and all moving objects possess spirits providing their motive force - Dualism: - Descarte’s idea that there is mind, and matter. - Came the idea of reflex, reactions without the participation of mind. - Model - Descartes explained about the nervous system as a model - Works on known principles and able to do at least some things a more complex system can do - Empiricism: - View that knowledge is obtained through senses - Materialism: - Belif that reality is known through understanding the physical world, where mind is a part of. - Doctrine of specific nerve energies - Johannes Muller: Observed nerve fibres conveys info to part of body to brain www.notesolution.com - Expermental ablation: - Removal of a portion of the brain for the purposes of studying the region - Psychophysics: - Quantative relation between physical stimuli and peception - Determinism: - Doctrine that behaviour is due to prior events - Law of Effect: - Observation that stimuli that occurs due to response, can increase or decreas
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