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Socy210 Review Final.docx

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Vincent F Sacco

December Exam Review Topic 1 Introduction to research process Week One Lecture Intro to research processKey Questions to be answered in this course How do we Know what we KnowHow much confidence can we have in what we knowAn examination of best practicesOur attention is limited to empirical questionso Empirical questions do have answers o Non empirical questions dont have a solid answero ie what is truthno correct answer Sometimes the line is blurryCan prayer cure heart diseasecan it make a difference Benson study of the Therapeutic Effects of intercessory Prayer STEP in cardiac bypass patientsGroup A was told somebody will prayer for you or somebody wont prayer for you people prayed for themGroup B somebody may pray for you somebody may not people didnt pray for themGroup C told that they will be pray for o Group C had a higher rate of symptomologyo May of stressed them out thinking their sicker then they areWe can contrast the ways of knowing emphasized in this course versions of the scientific method with more familiar ways of knowing Tradition authoritycommon senseTraditionInformation passed on through socializationAcquired from culture social institutions common knowledgeCumulative knowledgeFound in religious tracts oral traditions aphorisms saying that conveys some moral or truth Under written by parents religion ect Aphorisms to considero Pride goes before a fall o A leopard cannot change its spots o Out of the mouths of babes o Eat drink and be merry o Many are called but few are chosen o It is more blessed to give than to receive o Slow and steady wins the raceo Honesty is the best policy o One good turn deserves another o Let well enough alone o He who laughs last laughs bestThe problem with much traditional knowledge is easy to illustrateo Look before you leapBUT He who hesitates is lost o If at first you dont succeed try try again BUT Dont beat your head against a stone wall o Absence makes the heart grow fonder BUT Out of sight out of mind o Do unto others as you would have others do unto you BUT Nice guys finish last o Opposites attract BUT birds of a feather flock together o Nothing ventured nothing BUT a fool and his money are soon parted o You are never to old to learn BUT you cant teach an old dog new tricks o No pain no gain BUT if you cant stand the heat get out of the kitchen o Tradition knowledge causes a problem cause we dont know how validated the knowledge isAuthorityComes from those who hold some status and supposedlyby implicationexpertiseThe importance of credentials The importance of celebrity eg Jennie McCarthy and autismCredentials AND celebrityVictims as authoritiesvictims can be seen as authorities cause theyve lived through it It has credentials cause there is some truthness to what they say Weak indicator of what actually is happening with the use of celebrities or authorities Common sense Refers to what everybody knows and what is selfvalidatingCommon sense and antiintellectualism as in egcommon sense revolutionsAn important role for sociologists has been the debunking of common senseDucan Watts Everything is Obvious Once You Know the Answer 2011 argues that sociologists also misuse common sense o Poverty and rocket science o The obvious things seem to be opposite Poverty seems easy but why cant we get rid of itRocket science seems hard but we can get rockets to the moono Something is clearly self evidento Easy trap to fall into Stouffers study of the American SoldierBetter educated men showed more psychoneurotic symptoms than those with less educationMen from rural back grounds in better spirits than those from citesThose from southern climates better able to stand the heat in south sea islands than those from northern climatesAs long as fighting continued men were more anxious to return home than they were after the war endedCommon Errors of Human Inquiry whats wrong with everyday inquiry Inaccurate observation o Casual semiconscious observationmistake o We may miss informationlose accuracy o An impressive body of mainly social psychological evidence attests to our limitations in this respect eg attention blindness change blindness o Very narrow minded miss a lot that goes around us Recommended book Inaccurate observation as an art form Sleights of Mind What the Neuroscience of Magic Reveals about Our Everyday Deceptions Macknik et al Overgeneralization o Assuming that a few similar events are evidence of general pattern o From experience o From media portrayalsSelective Observation confirmation bias o Concentrating on observations that fit the pattern or theory we are using to explain a particular phenomenon while ignoring other sources of data o Most attentive to things we already think or knowo Positive things of a campaigner you vote for may stay with you and the negative things you may ignoreo People think things happen when they dontremember the hits and forget the misseso Cold readers as an example sophisticated game of 20 questions dont know much about you but by asking questionssaying relatively obvious thingsYinYang statements Silvia Browne James Vaughn PraaghHot readings research the person before they do a reading on the personIllogical Reasoning o Reaching a conclusion through means that are not logical o eg Gamblers fallacycommon error people make in reasoning when you keep loosing to the point you think that you have to win now it is now timeRussian rouletteBlack comes up 5 times in a wrong that now there must be a RedThere can be long runs that will defy our reasoningo The Regression fallacy if you get a really high mark you most likely going to get a lower mark next time evaluation of search very high score is likely to drop therefore even when action is taken on this and the score seems to drop it doesnt mean the action helped drop it was just bound to happen
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