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Ch8 detailed chapter notes i used these to study and did well on the exams

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 8 Memorymemorycognitive process of encoding storing and retrieving informationencodingprocess by which sensory information is converted into a form that can be used by brains memory system storageprocess of maintaining information in memoryretrievalactive process of locating and using stored informationliteralphysiological changes that occur when something is learnedmetaphoricalconceptual information processing models of memorylearningtendency for behaviour to change as result of experience with performance reflects brains plasticity three forms of memory sensory memory shortterm memory and longterm memorysensory memorymemory in which representations of physical features of stimulus are stored for very brief duration held long enough to become part of shortterm memory no analysis takes place but longer than perceptionshortterm memoryimmediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived limited in capacity 7or2 chunks of information and duration less than 20 secondslongterm memorymemory in which information is represented on permanent or nearpermanent basis durable no limitsStandingshowed people 10000 colour slides and found they could recognize them weeks later occurs due to physical changes that take place in brain modal model of memorygeneral conception of memory systemSensory Memorynot awareonly when presented briefly have sensory memory for every modality2 main iconic visual and echoic auditoryIconic Memoryiconic memorysensory memory that holds brief visual image of scene that has just been perceived also known as visible persistenceSperlingpresented visual images through tachistoscope at rate of 9 letters on screen for 50 millisecondson average person could remember 4 or 5 but insisted that for brief time could see more but images faded to fast to see allalso used partial report procedure to determine whether capacity of iconic memory accounted for this limitationasked people to name letters in only one horizontal row indicated by a tone after letters disappeared able to repeat letters with perfect accuracyiconic memory had capacity for all 9 if delay of tone was longer than 1 second people could onyl relay 50 could not recall all 9 because had faded from memoryEchoic Memoryechoic memorysensory memory for sounds that have just been perceivednecessary for comprehending sound particularly those that constitute speechcannot identify word until we have heard whole sound so accoustical information must be stored temporarliy until all sounds have been receivedevidence from partial reporting shows that it lasts less than 4 seconds ShortTerm or Working Memory Encoding of Information Interaction with LongTerm Memoryinformation can enter st memory from sensory of lt memory working memorymemory for new information and information retrieved from longterm memory same as st memoryrepresents behaviour that takes place inside our headrepresents our ability to remember what we have just perceived and to think about it in terms of what we already knowPrimacy and Recency Effectsfreerecall taskremember what you can of information that was just given to youprimacy effecttendency to remember initial information due to opportunity for rehearsal which causes them to be stored in lt memory recency effecttendency to remember later information due to fact that they are last to be rehearsed so are still in st memorypointed out by Atkinson and Shiffrin Limits of Working MemoryLlyod and Margaret Petersonpresented people with stimuli composed of 3 consonants JRGpeople recalled info 30 seconds laterwhen made to count backwards from 34 digit numbers consonants were only accesible for a few seconds and dropped to zero after 1518 secondsstimuli remain in st memory for 20 seconds unless rehearsedMillerthe magical number 7 plus or minu 2 people can retain on average 7or 2 pieces of information chunkingprocess by which information is simplified by rules which make it easily remembered once rules are learnedcan remember more if information can be organized into more meaningful sequenceMcNamara and Scotttaught people to chain unrelated words together as they listened to themimagined story involving those wordsVarieties of Working MemoryPhonological Working Memoryphonological shortterm memoryshort term memory for verbal information whether presented visually or accousticallyConradshowed how quickly visually presented information becomes encoded acoustically briefly showed people lists of 6 letters and then asked them to write letterssaw letters visually but when made errors they were accoustical V vs Bshows that words were encoded acousticallyphonological memory may be produced by activity in auditory system by circuits of neurons in auditory association cortexsubvocal articulationunvoiced speech utterancealthough no actual movement may occur is possible activity occurs in neural
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