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A+ Notes: Final Exam Summary

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Steve Joordens

Memorycognitive processes of encoding storing retrieving infomemory plays a role if past experience affects behaviourencodingsensory infoform that can be used by brains mem sysstoragemaintaining info in memretrievallocating and using stored infoprogressive reactivation ex last line of song3 forms of memory modal model of memory sensorySTLTSensory Memoryrepresentation of physical features of stimulus stored brieflycan switch attention to have sense of whats happeningiconic memory visible persistenceholds briefs visual image of scene just perceivedSperlingfull report condition 459 letters partial report after 1 sec152 3implies 89 letters available but fades once participants start reportingechoic memoryfor sounds just perceived 45 secs up to 20what effectcan replay what they just saidWorking Memoryimmediate memory of stimulus just perceivedfragile20 secs unless rehearsed and limited capacity 7 2 chucksrelationship bw STLT memuse ST to get things into LT also need to pull things from LT to answer ex 5x13 hence workingprimacy effectrecency effecttendency to rmb initial and later infoprimacy bc rehearsed more recency bc words are still in ST memphonological looprepeating the s using sounds to rmbsubvocal articulationunvoiced speech utterance conduction aphasiacan understand speech but cant repeat exact wordsvisual spatial sketchpad things lost from wrk mem like conveyor beltLT Memoryinfo is represented on permanent basis doesnt have to be cont rehearsedconsolidationinfo from STLT presumably bc of physical changes to neurons in brainRehearsal maintenance repeatrepeat vs elaborative think associate give meaningmaintenance can keep it in ST but not necessarily in LTProcessing shallow superficialsurface vs deep meaning associationsProcessing effortful rehearsing info through deep or shallow processing vs automatic form memories wo effortencoding specificityhow we encode info determines ability to retrieveImprove memory mnemonic system special techniques in attempt to improve memory1Method of Lociusing landmarks2Pegword methodonebun twoshoe3Narrative dual codingimageassociation LT Memory Structuresepisodic autobiographic events semantic academic general knowledge procedural muscle movementsImplicit cant describe memwhat to do when youre falling off bike vs Explicit can verbally describe memretrieval cues infl implicit level of processing infl explicitretrograde amnesialoss of ability to retrieve past memories forget up to a pt before hitanterograde amnesiainability to form new memory HMcan learn new skills but cant rmb learning themhippocampus affects explicit basal ganglia affects implicitdestruction of hippocampus leads to anterograde amnesiaexperiments show rats wo hippocampus dont rmbplace cellneuron that fires when animal in particular location
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