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A+ Notes: Midterm Summary

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Psych MidtermPsychthe science of behavthe mind was independent free spiritmind as part of brain whose func is to control behavcasual eventscauses another event to occurAreas of Psych Research 1 type of behav 2 what casual eventsphysiologicalorganic processesfunc esp nervous syschemicalbrainbehavComparativestudy other speciiessimilaritiesdiff w humansevolutionary adaptionbehavBehaviour analysis effect of consequences on behav learning and motivationlaw of effectgood more bad lessBehaviour genetics role of genes on behavCognitive psychcomplex behavmental processes perception attention memoryCognitive neurosciencephysiologicalcognitive psych cog psych through brain mechanismsdevelopmentalhow ageexperience affects behavsocial effect of other ppl on ppl social influencespersonalityindiv diff temperamentpersonal historypattern of behavevolutionaryadaptive adv of specific behav during evolutionnatural selection as guiding prin bad behav now must have had some purpose throughout evoutioncrosscultureimpact of culture on behavclinicalinvestigationtreatment of psych disorders apply learning of causes to help patientPhilosophy Rootsearly on everything attributed soulsanimism everything that moved had souls even gravityproblem if humans had soul cant be studied scientifically to be science must be materialRene Descartesdualism humans had both mind and matter soulfree willnonmechanical mind controlled mechanical bodyhuman was machinereflexes are automatic responses to stimulus that didnt require mindJohn Lockeeven the mind is a machinesempiricismrunning experimentsprocess of learning all ideas from experiencebabies are blank slateBerkeley learning is through perceptionJames Millmaterialism mind is part of physical world and can be studiedBiological Rootsdancing frog legdoesnt need soul to workLuigi GalvaniMullerdoctrine of specific nerve energies basic msg sent is same an electric impulse received diffled to notion of brain regionsFlourensablation remove parts to see their functionBrocas region theory of Phrenology touching head to feel size of brainFritschHitzigelectric stimulation to map brain functionsHermann von Helmholtzspeed of nerve impulses by ppl squeezing handsWeberratio with weights psychophysicsEducationdeterminismbehav is the result of prior eventsmaterialism implies determinism which is opposed to free will determinism allows prediction that an outcome will follow causeWild Boy of AveryronItard physician tried to teach boy languagePinelintroduced that mental disorders could be treatedJohn Deweychildren learn through goals estab habits to integrate child into society Progressive educationThrondikelaw of effect repeat behav after successidentify discrete units that make up task to be learnt based on rewards for learningvs Montessoriexercises matching childs competency at the stage physical movement related to learning rewards interfered with natural incentive to learnDevelopment of PsychstWilliam Wundt1 psychologistintrospection ppl analyze own inner thoughts ignore complex perceptions focus on elementary onesstructure of the mind emphasized introspection structure of inner experienceStructuralismdied out bc relied on subjectivenesspsych shifted from study of mind to study of behavthinking was a function like other functions produced useful and adaptive behavFunctionalismtry to understand behav in terms of adaptive usefulnessobservable behav not based on private mental eventsWilliam James theory of emotion DarwinDifferences between Functionalism and Structuralism1struc what does internal world look like components of consciousness ideas and sensationsfunc what is purpose of internal thoughtsexper process of conscious activity perceiving and learning2func is study of mental operations not mental processes mind rmbs doesnt contain memory3mental process studied as part of biological activity process of adaptionevolution4relation bw enviroresponse of organism to enviro mindbody were same entityEbbinghausmemory using nonwords pt is quantified something abstract like memoryFreudclinical psychpsychodynamic theoryhis theory of mind had structures but not like Wundts structures of ego superego id part of unconsciourness not ava to introspectionemphasized his mental struc served biological drives and instinctsguy not seeing traumatic event no physical cause of blindness cause is psychological causeN Amer Behaviourism psych research should only be on observable behav focus on objectivity study of stimulus and their consequent behavWatsonestab as schoolstThorndikes law of effect cats and D mazes1 time took long but eventually learned route Pavlovs dog classical conditioningresponse to stimulus that had never causes such response BF SkinnerMargaret Washburnintrospection is form of behav vs Europe Geshalt PsychHumanistic Psychcreativity choice selfrealization growthhumanisticfocus on human experience emphasis on positive human naturepotential for personal growthGeshaltperception orgn of cognitive processes is there one leg or two legsunderstanding processes underlying behavcognitive psych uses info processing info received by senses processed by sys of neurons in brainmodel of the brain is a computerDonald HebbAgainst Behaviourism Neurobiologyfind out what part of brain does what and their role in behavmental processes could be directly related to brain activity challenge behaviourism notiontechnology has allowed study of brain in greater detail3 types of scientific researchnaturalistic observationin natural enviro clinical observationobserve while undergoing treatmentcase studies clinical obsevsurvey study study of ppls responses to standardised quescorrelational studies examine bw 2 measurements of behav
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