PSYA01 mtuners.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Mtuner 1 1. In cases where we are studying just one person, what kind of study would this be called? Case study 2. In chapter 1, the authors mention the case of Elliot, who experience a tumor removal surgery. After the surgeons removed the middle of his brain, odd things began to happen to him. These odd things include: risky behavior, inability to prioritize, and bad decision makings 3. Professor Joordens described a shark experiment a shark experiment in which two conditions were used: one which involved passively observing the sharks in a tank with a conducting rodd off and one which involved electrifying the rod and observing the sharks. Which of the following correctly classifies the two conditions? Conducting rod off=control condition; conducting rod on=experimental condition. 4. A scientist wants to conduct an experiment to test the theory that a vitamin could extend a person’s life-expectancy. In this scenario, the independent variable is ___. And the dependent variable is ___. The amount of vitamin that is given to the subjects; person’s life-expectancy. 5. The two features that are involved in a well-conducted experiment are __ and ___. Manipulation; random assignment. 6. Which philosopher to argue for the notion of dualism between the physical body and the intangible mind? Rene Descartes. 7. Greek thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle had different views on how the mind works. Plato proposed that certain kinds of knowledge were innate or inborn, while Aristotle believed that all knowledge was acquired through experience. Plato’s view on minds is also called: nativism. 8. What is the problem with using correlation? You cannot make any conclusions on casual relationship. 9. You devise a test to see how well it can be determine someon’s affinity for grad school. You give it to 200 grad students and 200 non-graduate students. You find that 90% of the current grad students score within “good” and “excellent” range in terms of affinity to grad school while only 30 % of the individuals from other jobs have “good” or “excellent” affinity. What type of validity can you infer from the test? Internal validity 10.What does cognitive neuroscience attempt to explore the relationship of? Cognitive processes and brain activity. 11.A psychologist monitors a group of nursery school children, recording each instance of altruistic behavior as it occurs. This psychologist is using: naturalistic observation. 12.What is the other name for the normal distribution features data you have collected in a bell-shaped frequency distribution? Gaussian distribution. 13.Which type of validity concerns how well the experimental procedures can be generalized to the real world? External validity. 14.The simplest measure of variability for a set of data is called rang. 15.Which philosopher is best known for his suggestion that the body and soul are fundamentally different? Rene Descartes. 16.In cultural psychology, the textbook mentions that an ___ view holds that cultures makes little or no difference for psychological phenomena, while the ___ view holds that culture is an important contextual variable to consider research. Absolutism, relativism. 17.William James disagreed with Wundt’s claim of ___. Isolation and analysis of a particular moment of consciousness. 18.What was Wundt’s primary topic of study at his laboratory? Consciousness. 19.What is the approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes called? Behavioral neuroscience. 20.You are reading the results section from a journal article. The authors state that the accumulation of protein X significantly increases with age. What are the authors really saying? Positive correlation. 21.The focus of the __ approach was to help people realize their full potential. Humanistic 22.Wundt’s primary study at his laboratory was consciousness, and he tried to provide objective measurements of conscious process by using ___ techniques. Reaction time. 23.The example of Mueller-Lyer Line Illusion demonstrates that. Subjective experience differs from objective reality. 24.According to Sigmund Freud, the unconscious part of our mind largely influences our conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions in our daily lives. This idea formed the basis for which theory? Psychoanalytic theory. 25.When psychologists report that a result is significant, p,0.05, they typically ascribe a particular meaning to it. Therefore, what kind of statistics are they using? Inferential statistics. 26.Which of the following description of central tendency gives you the average score? Mean 27.As professor Joordens mentioned in class, which philosopher said “ I think even the human mind is a machine,…”? John Locke. 28.A hypothetical explanation of natural phenomenon is called a ___ Theory. 29.You decide to see how well your bathroom scale works. You stand on it 10 times over the course of one day and it reports 10 values that are relatively consistent, but at times off by one or two pounds. What can we say aobut the scale form this observation? It is reliable. 30.Psychology was founded with deeply entrenched roots in the study of ___. Philosophy. 31.How accurately the dependent variable can be measured is called ___-. Reliability. 32.___ refers to the tendency for people to cling to their assumptions; on the other side, ___ refers to the belif that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation. Dogmatism; empiricism. 33.Imagine you are doing an experiment on emotion sensitivity, the idea that emotional information is perceived more saliently than other information. Emotion sensitivity can be measured in a variety of ways but in your experiment you decide on defining it as the “ability to recognize emotional expressions at lower intensities”. In doing so, what kind of definition did you just create? Operational definitions. 34.As professor Joordens explained in class, this early psychologist wanted to combine physics and study of the mind. One of the things this psychologist was famous for was measuring how people could perceive “just noticeable differences between two weight.” Weber 35.B.F Skinner was a famous for demonstrating which learning principle through conducting experiments using Skinner box? Reinforcement. 36.Watson was influenced by the work of the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlo, and he applied Pavlovs’ techniques to human infants. On eof the best examples is the ___ experiment. “Little Albert” 37.What properties should a good measure be able to demonstrate? Good power, high reliability, high validity. 38.Which of the following is NOT a measurement of central tendency? Variance. 39.Which concept should be illustrated by the following quote: start with the simplest theory possible and then make the theory more complicated only if we must”? The rule of parsimony. 40.Psychoanalysis was a hot topic in the 1910~1920 and behaviorism was the next great moment for 1930-1950. Which theoretical viewpoint dominated next, often called the third wave of thought? Cognitive psychology. Mtuner 2 1. The idea that while aspects of sensory signal change, their perception remains constant is the fundamental principle of perceptual constancy 2. The area of the retina in which the clearest vision occurs is the FOVEA. You would also expect zero rods cells to be there because this area is important for fine detail. 3. Your forgetful TA starts describing the vision system and talks about the properties of light waves. Suddenly, he stumbles and can’t remember what each of the three physical measures: length, amplitude, and purity correspond to in terms of the psychological dimension. You raise your hand to help. You start by saying, “respectively, length, amplitude,e and purity correspond to…” and the rest of your statement should read, what? HUE, BRIGHTNESS, AND SATURATION. 4. In lecture Prof Joordens described a study in which an experimenter first had the participant either accidentally knock over some very important cards or did not have them knock over the cards. Then the participant watched a brief film about French Canadians and assessed the participants’ attitude toward this group of people. What was the independent and dependent variable being assessed here? Attitudes; number of negative self-esteem statements. 5. In the ear, what are the actual cells that release neurotransmitters? Hair cell 6. Prof Joordens talked about the Wisconsin card sorting task during this lecture. What lobe of the brain would you be tapping with this task and what are the characteristic errors that this test tries to assess? Frontal lobe; perseveration errors. 7. Which of the following provides the proper progression for the auditory system to transduce change in air pressure? These are the following body parts to organize: ear drum, pinna, ossicles, semicircular canals, cochlea, auditory canal, auditory nerve. Auditory nerve-ear drum-ossicle-cochlea- auditory nerve. 8. In chapter 1, the authors mentioned the case of Elliot, who experience a tumor removal surgery. After the surgeons removed the middle of his brain, odd things began to happen to him. These odd things include: risky behavior, inability to prioritize and bad decision makings. 9. Pain is one of the lease understood senses. An influential psychologist who studies pain, Ronald Melzack hypothesized that pain can be stopped, or gated, by interneurons in the spinal cord through feedback. What is the name of the theory and what is the main part of the brain that can supposedly turn pain on and off? Gate-control theory; periaqeductal gray. 10.During the action potential, which ion flows into the neuron in large concentrations? Na 11.What do we call the difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of neuron’s cell membrane? What is the approximate valvue of this difference when you are inside the neuron compared to the outside of it? Resting potential:-70 millivolts 12.When tissue is damaged, how do the A delta fibers and C fibers signal pain? A delta fibers transmit sharp pain initially but C fibers cause the longer trobbing pain 13.When you touch something very hot, what would be the correct sequence of neurons being activated in order to remove your hand form the hot object? Sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons. 14.In a double blind experiment, the purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed. 15.The focus of the humanistic approach was to help people realize their full potential. 16.We often gain incredible knowledge from patients who have suffered severe brain damage. In the case of Phineas Gage, what did we learn about the prefrontal cortex, when his was damage in the unfortunate mining accident? The Prefrontal cortex is involved in emotion regulation, planning and decision making. 17.Which of the following r value indicates the strongest correlation? (0.09,0.71,-0.56,-0.74) r—0.74 18.Where would you find the nucleus of the neuron? Cell body 19.Oh no! you are in the presence of a tiger. Your pupils dilate, your heart rate increases, your digestive is inhibited, and lungs constricted. Which one of these bodily reactions actually contradicts the action o sympathetic nervous system? Constricted lungs 20.If you wanted to get a structural image of someone’s brain, you would suggest MRI or CT brain imaging techniques. If you wanted to assess the brain in action during a task, you might suggest using FMRI or PET barin imaging technique. 21.For centuries, people have often wondered our brain creates how the heck the environment we see all around. Since you’ve read Chapter Four, you know that this process involves two things: sensation, the stimulation of sense organ and perception, the organization and interpretation of stimuli from the environment. 22.Greek thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle had different view on how the mind works. Plato proposed that certain kinds of knowledge were innate or inborn; while Aristotle believed that all knowledge was acquired through experience. Plato’s view on mind is also called nativism. 23.When you watch a movie, the occipital lobe processes very basic visual information to build an entire visual experience that we see as a movie. The temporal lobe would allow you to remember that movie once you have watched it. 24.What are the subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system? Sympathetic parasympathetic nervous system. 25.Cones can contain one of the three pigments, corresponding to long, medium, short wavelengths. Which color would correspond to these wavelengths, respectively? Red, green, blue 26.An experimenter discovers that asking people to tell the difference between two weights gets harder as you increase weight. For example, telling the difference between 10 and 11 ounces is easier than telling the difference between 100 and 101 ounces. In fact the experimenter has discovered that you need at least an extra ounce (102 ounces) for the observer to notice the difference. What has the experimenter just provided support t for? Weber’s law 27.Prof Joorderns described a shark experiment in which 2 conditions were used: one which involved passively observing the sharks in a tank with a conducting rod off and one which involved electrifying the rod and observing the sharks. Which of the following correctly classifies the two conditions? Conducting rod off=control condition. Conducting rod on=experimental condition. 28.What is the name of the nucleus in the thalamus that relays visual information to the occipital cortex for further processing? Lateral geniculate nucleus. 29.How accurately the dependent variable can be measured is called reliability 30.Which part of the axon facilitates salutatory conduction of the action potential and thus drastically increases the speed of conduction? Nodes of Ranvier 31.Regarding neurotransmitters: glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information-processing throughout the brain while GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in information processing throughout the brain. 32.Within a cell, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, which have a double helix shape to them. Within these structures are thousands of genes, sections of DNA that are units of hereditary transmission. 33.A researcher administers a questionnaire concerning life satisfaction to people of both genders and of all ages who live across the country. The dependent variable in the study is the life satisfaction of the participants. 34.What are the sexual related chemicals that the olfactory system might incorporate into attraction? Pheromones 35.According to the field of psychophysics, what i
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