1. In cases where we are studying just one person, what kind of study would
this be called? Case study
2. In chapter 1, the authors mention the case of Elliot, who experience a tumor
removal surgery. After the surgeons removed the middle of his brain, odd
things began to happen to him. These odd things include: risky behavior,
inability to prioritize, and bad decision makings
3. Professor Joordens described a shark experiment a shark experiment in
which two conditions were used: one which involved passively observing the
sharks in a tank with a conducting rodd off and one which involved
electrifying the rod and observing the sharks. Which of the following
correctly classifies the two conditions? Conducting rod off=control condition;
conducting rod on=experimental condition.
4. A scientist wants to conduct an experiment to test the theory that a vitamin
could extend a person’s life-expectancy. In this scenario, the independent
variable is ___. And the dependent variable is ___. The amount of vitamin that
is given to the subjects; person’s life-expectancy.
5. The two features that are involved in a well-conducted experiment are __ and
___. Manipulation; random assignment.
6. Which philosopher to argue for the notion of dualism between the physical
body and the intangible mind? Rene Descartes.
7. Greek thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle had different views on how the
mind works. Plato proposed that certain kinds of knowledge were innate or
inborn, while Aristotle believed that all knowledge was acquired through
experience. Plato’s view on minds is also called: nativism.
8. What is the problem with using correlation? You cannot make any
conclusions on casual relationship.
9. You devise a test to see how well it can be determine someon’s affinity for
grad school. You give it to 200 grad students and 200 non-graduate students.
You find that 90% of the current grad students score within “good” and
“excellent” range in terms of affinity to grad school while only 30 % of the
individuals from other jobs have “good” or “excellent” affinity. What type of
validity can you infer from the test? Internal validity
10.What does cognitive neuroscience attempt to explore the relationship of?
Cognitive processes and brain activity.
11.A psychologist monitors a group of nursery school children, recording each
instance of altruistic behavior as it occurs. This psychologist is using:
12.What is the other name for the normal distribution features data you have
collected in a bell-shaped frequency distribution? Gaussian distribution.
13.Which type of validity concerns how well the experimental procedures can
be generalized to the real world? External validity.
14.The simplest measure of variability for a set of data is called rang.
15.Which philosopher is best known for his suggestion that the body and soul
are fundamentally different? Rene Descartes. 16.In cultural psychology, the textbook mentions that an ___ view holds that
cultures makes little or no difference for psychological phenomena, while the
___ view holds that culture is an important contextual variable to consider
research. Absolutism, relativism.
17.William James disagreed with Wundt’s claim of ___. Isolation and analysis of a
particular moment of consciousness.
18.What was Wundt’s primary topic of study at his laboratory? Consciousness.
19.What is the approach to psychology that links psychological processes to
activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes called?
20.You are reading the results section from a journal article. The authors state
that the accumulation of protein X significantly increases with age. What are
the authors really saying? Positive correlation.
21.The focus of the __ approach was to help people realize their full potential.
22.Wundt’s primary study at his laboratory was consciousness, and he tried to
provide objective measurements of conscious process by using ___
techniques. Reaction time.
23.The example of Mueller-Lyer Line Illusion demonstrates that. Subjective
experience differs from objective reality.
24.According to Sigmund Freud, the unconscious part of our mind largely
influences our conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions in our daily lives.
This idea formed the basis for which theory? Psychoanalytic theory.
25.When psychologists report that a result is significant, p,0.05, they typically
ascribe a particular meaning to it. Therefore, what kind of statistics are they
using? Inferential statistics.
26.Which of the following description of central tendency gives you the average
27.As professor Joordens mentioned in class, which philosopher said “ I think
even the human mind is a machine,…”? John Locke.
28.A hypothetical explanation of natural phenomenon is called a ___ Theory.
29.You decide to see how well your bathroom scale works. You stand on it 10
times over the course of one day and it reports 10 values that are relatively
consistent, but at times off by one or two pounds. What can we say aobut the
scale form this observation? It is reliable.
30.Psychology was founded with deeply entrenched roots in the study of ___.
31.How accurately the dependent variable can be measured is called ___-.
32.___ refers to the tendency for people to cling to their assumptions; on the
other side, ___ refers to the belif that accurate knowledge can be acquired
through observation. Dogmatism; empiricism.
33.Imagine you are doing an experiment on emotion sensitivity, the idea that
emotional information is perceived more saliently than other information.
Emotion sensitivity can be measured in a variety of ways but in your
experiment you decide on defining it as the “ability to recognize emotional expressions at lower intensities”. In doing so, what kind of definition did you
just create? Operational definitions.
34.As professor Joordens explained in class, this early psychologist wanted to
combine physics and study of the mind. One of the things this psychologist
was famous for was measuring how people could perceive “just noticeable
differences between two weight.” Weber
35.B.F Skinner was a famous for demonstrating which learning principle
through conducting experiments using Skinner box? Reinforcement.
36.Watson was influenced by the work of the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlo,
and he applied Pavlovs’ techniques to human infants. On eof the best
examples is the ___ experiment. “Little Albert”
37.What properties should a good measure be able to demonstrate? Good
power, high reliability, high validity.
38.Which of the following is NOT a measurement of central tendency? Variance.
39.Which concept should be illustrated by the following quote: start with the
simplest theory possible and then make the theory more complicated only if
we must”? The rule of parsimony.
40.Psychoanalysis was a hot topic in the 1910~1920 and behaviorism was the
next great moment for 1930-1950. Which theoretical viewpoint dominated
next, often called the third wave of thought? Cognitive psychology.
1. The idea that while aspects of sensory signal change, their perception
remains constant is the fundamental principle of perceptual constancy
2. The area of the retina in which the clearest vision occurs is the FOVEA. You
would also expect zero rods cells to be there because this area is important
for fine detail.
3. Your forgetful TA starts describing the vision system and talks about the
properties of light waves. Suddenly, he stumbles and can’t remember what
each of the three physical measures: length, amplitude, and purity
correspond to in terms of the psychological dimension. You raise your hand
to help. You start by saying, “respectively, length, amplitude,e and purity
correspond to…” and the rest of your statement should read, what? HUE,
BRIGHTNESS, AND SATURATION.
4. In lecture Prof Joordens described a study in which an experimenter first had
the participant either accidentally knock over some very important cards or
did not have them knock over the cards. Then the participant watched a brief
film about French Canadians and assessed the participants’ attitude toward
this group of people. What was the independent and dependent variable
being assessed here? Attitudes; number of negative self-esteem statements.
5. In the ear, what are the actual cells that release neurotransmitters? Hair cell
6. Prof Joordens talked about the Wisconsin card sorting task during this
lecture. What lobe of the brain would you be tapping with this task and what
are the characteristic errors that this test tries to assess? Frontal lobe;
perseveration errors. 7. Which of the following provides the proper progression for the auditory
system to transduce change in air pressure? These are the following body
parts to organize: ear drum, pinna, ossicles, semicircular canals, cochlea,
auditory canal, auditory nerve. Auditory nerve-ear drum-ossicle-cochlea-
8. In chapter 1, the authors mentioned the case of Elliot, who experience a
tumor removal surgery. After the surgeons removed the middle of his brain,
odd things began to happen to him. These odd things include: risky behavior,
inability to prioritize and bad decision makings.
9. Pain is one of the lease understood senses. An influential psychologist who
studies pain, Ronald Melzack hypothesized that pain can be stopped, or
gated, by interneurons in the spinal cord through feedback. What is the name
of the theory and what is the main part of the brain that can supposedly turn
pain on and off? Gate-control theory; periaqeductal gray.
10.During the action potential, which ion flows into the neuron in large
11.What do we call the difference in electrical charge between the inside and
outside of neuron’s cell membrane? What is the approximate valvue of this
difference when you are inside the neuron compared to the outside of it?
Resting potential:-70 millivolts
12.When tissue is damaged, how do the A delta fibers and C fibers signal pain? A
delta fibers transmit sharp pain initially but C fibers cause the longer
13.When you touch something very hot, what would be the correct sequence of
neurons being activated in order to remove your hand form the hot object?
Sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons.
14.In a double blind experiment, the purpose is hidden from both the observer
and the person being observed.
15.The focus of the humanistic approach was to help people realize their full
16.We often gain incredible knowledge from patients who have suffered severe
brain damage. In the case of Phineas Gage, what did we learn about the
prefrontal cortex, when his was damage in the unfortunate mining accident?
The Prefrontal cortex is involved in emotion regulation, planning and
17.Which of the following r value indicates the strongest correlation?
18.Where would you find the nucleus of the neuron? Cell body
19.Oh no! you are in the presence of a tiger. Your pupils dilate, your heart rate
increases, your digestive is inhibited, and lungs constricted. Which one of
these bodily reactions actually contradicts the action o sympathetic nervous
system? Constricted lungs
20.If you wanted to get a structural image of someone’s brain, you would
suggest MRI or CT brain imaging techniques. If you wanted to assess the
brain in action during a task, you might suggest using FMRI or PET barin
imaging technique. 21.For centuries, people have often wondered our brain creates how the heck
the environment we see all around. Since you’ve read Chapter Four, you
know that this process involves two things: sensation, the stimulation of
sense organ and perception, the organization and interpretation of stimuli
from the environment.
22.Greek thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle had different view on how the
mind works. Plato proposed that certain kinds of knowledge were innate or
inborn; while Aristotle believed that all knowledge was acquired through
experience. Plato’s view on mind is also called nativism.
23.When you watch a movie, the occipital lobe processes very basic visual
information to build an entire visual experience that we see as a movie. The
temporal lobe would allow you to remember that movie once you have
24.What are the subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system? Sympathetic
parasympathetic nervous system.
25.Cones can contain one of the three pigments, corresponding to long, medium,
short wavelengths. Which color would correspond to these wavelengths,
respectively? Red, green, blue
26.An experimenter discovers that asking people to tell the difference between
two weights gets harder as you increase weight. For example, telling the
difference between 10 and 11 ounces is easier than telling the difference
between 100 and 101 ounces. In fact the experimenter has discovered that
you need at least an extra ounce (102 ounces) for the observer to notice the
difference. What has the experimenter just provided support t for? Weber’s
27.Prof Joorderns described a shark experiment in which 2 conditions were
used: one which involved passively observing the sharks in a tank with a
conducting rod off and one which involved electrifying the rod and observing
the sharks. Which of the following correctly classifies the two conditions?
Conducting rod off=control condition. Conducting rod on=experimental
28.What is the name of the nucleus in the thalamus that relays visual
information to the occipital cortex for further processing? Lateral geniculate
29.How accurately the dependent variable can be measured is called reliability
30.Which part of the axon facilitates salutatory conduction of the action
potential and thus drastically increases the speed of conduction? Nodes of
31.Regarding neurotransmitters: glutamate is the major excitatory
neurotransmitter involved in information-processing throughout the brain
while GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in information
processing throughout the brain.
32.Within a cell, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, which have a double helix
shape to them. Within these structures are thousands of genes, sections of
DNA that are units of hereditary transmission. 33.A researcher administers a questionnaire concerning life satisfaction to
people of both genders and of all ages who live across the country. The
dependent variable in the study is the life satisfaction of the participants.
34.What are the sexual related chemicals that the olfactory system might
incorporate into attraction? Pheromones
35.According to the field of psychophysics, what i