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PSYA01H3: MidTerm Review

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Helen Li (PSAY01) Chapter 1.1: The Science of Psychology  Psychologists refer to the act of treating objects or animals like people-> Anthropomorphism  Psychology: the scientific study of behavior, thought, and experience  Scientific method: way of learning about the world through collecting observations, proposing explanations for the observations, developing theories to explain them, and using the theories to make predictions o Dynamic interaction between hypothesis testing & construction of theories o MUST be testable  Hypothesis (plural: hypotheses): testable prediction about processes that can be observed and measured o Testable -> can be confirmed & rejected (do not need to prove a hypothesis)  Pseudoscience: refers to ideas that are presented as science but do not actually utilize basic principles of scientific thinking or procedure  Theory: an explanation for a broad range of observations that also generates new hypotheses and integrates numerous findings into a coherent whole o Any scientific theory must be falsifiable  Testing hypotheses & constructing theories are both part of all sciences  Biopyschosocial model: a means of explaining behavior as a product of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors o Biological influences on behavior: brain structures, chemicals, hormones, drug effects o Family, peers, immediate social situation also determine how you think, feel, behave Helen Li (PSAY01)  Scientific literacy: the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific information o Individuals should develop an ability to provide explanations that incorporate scientific terms & concepts  Working the model -> help move beyond just vocab & towards learning critically  Critical thinking: involved exercising curiosity and skepticism when evaluating the claims of others, and with out own assumptions and beliefs o Curiosity is essential to psychology because many think about causes of behavior when it affects us negatively or when it strikes us as unusual (Why does my child have problems in school?) o Critical thinking means respecting other viewpoints but also that ideas can be incorrect  Scientific & critical thinking involves use of principle or parsimony: simplest of all competing explanations (the most “parsimonious”) of a phenomenon should be the one we accept Chapter 1.2: How Psychology Became A Science  Science is actually a philosophy of knowledge that stems from two fundamental beliefs: o Empiricism: a philosophical tenet that knowledge comes through experience (“seeing is believing”… but in scientific terms; empiricism means that knowledge about the world is based on careful observation, not common sense or speculation) Helen Li (PSAY01) o Determinism: the belief that all events are governed by lawful, cause-and-effect relationships (natural laws such as gravity… philosophical debate often referred to as free will versus determinism)  Zeitgeist (German word for ”spirit of the times”): refers to a general set of beliefs of a particular culture at a specific time in history  Materialism: the belief that humans and other living beings, are composed exclusively if physical matter o Dualism: opposing belief that there are properties of humans that are not material (a mind of soul separate from body)  Gustav Fechner (1801-1887): o Worked on sensation & perception o Interested in natural world of moving objects and energy o Turned his knowledge to psychological questions about the physical and mental worlds interact o Coined the term: Psychophysics: study of the relationship between the physical world and mental representation of that world (E.g. holding different weights in both hands; just noticeable difference => tested how people detect changes in physical stimuli)  Charles Darwin (1809-1882): o Studied variety of plants & animals around the world (around same time as Fechner was doing experiments) o Noticed animal groups that were isolated from one another often differed by only minor variations in physical features  Natural selection: based on his observations that the genetically inherited traits that contribute to survival and reproductive success are more likely to flourish within the breeding population => why there is diversity of life on Earth o Even before Darwin, humans had selectively bred animals to behave certain ways (i.e. artificial selection of traits, rather than natural selection) o Behaviors, like physical traits are subject to heredity influences & natural selection was a major contribution to psychology  Clinical psychology: the field of psychology that concentrates on the diagnostic and treatment of psychological disorders o Brain localization: one field of medical study of the idea that certain parts of the brain control specific mental abilities and personality characteristics  Mid-1800‟s: two competing views of localization: 1) Phrenology -> made popular by physician Frankz Gall (1758- 1828) & Johann Sourzhein (1776- 1832) o Believed that brain consisted of 27 “organs”, corresponding to mental traits and dispositions that could be detected by examining surface of skull 2) Study of brain injuries -> in which they affect behavior o Had scientific grounding that phrenology lacked  Paul Broca: studied patient named Tan o Realized that certain patients had the same behavior (could understand/ obey him, but could not produce speech that had any meaning) o After there deaths, removed brains & found that specific part of their brains damaged o Localization of language  Franz Mesmer: Helen Li (PSAY01) o Believed that prolonged exposure to magnets could redirect the flow of metallic fluids in body => curing diseases and insanity o Although rejected by medical & scientific communities in France: some of his patients seemed to be cured and we now call: psychosomatic medicine  Sigmund Freud: o Used hypnosis to treat his patients -> interested in how hypnosis seemed to have cured several patients of hysterical paralysis- condition in which individual loses feeling and control in a specific body part despite lack of any known neurological damage or disease o Unconscious: part of the mind that operates out of conscious awareness, but, influences conscious thoughts, feelings & actions. This lets him develop psychoanalytic theory o Psychoanalytic theory: approach that emphasize the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaped feelings, thoughts & behaviors  Served for a therapy Freud called psychoanalysis  Psychoanalysis: a psychological approach that attempts to explain how behavior and personality are influenced by unconscious processes o Popularized notion of psychological disease & linked them mostly to physiological conflict (disorders of emotions, thought & behavior) -> medical model o Invented psychoanalysis, promoted cocaine, spoke a lot about sexual & aggressive urges, popularized his notion of psychology & drove (and still does) scientists nuts  Sir Francis Galton: Charles Darwin‟s cousin o Believed that heredity (genetics) explained psychological differences among people o For example, he noticed that great achievement tended to run in families o To support his beliefs: Eminence- a combination of ability, morality, and achievement. Also supported his beliefs by ignoring the fact that great people can and do come from humble beginnings o One of the first investigators to scientifically take one nature and nurture relationships: the inquiry into how heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) influence behavior and mental processes o Beliefs & biases => pursue scientific justification for eugenics => “good genes” & promoted belief that social programs should encourage intelligent, talented individuals to have children & criminals, those with physical/ mental disabilities/ non white races to be kept out of English gene pools  Field of biological psychology seeks to explain the underlying genetic, physiological & brain basis for behavior  Field of cognitive neuroscience examines relationships between thought and brain function  Wilhelm Wundt: development of structuralism o Believed that psychology should focus in analyzing consciousness o Structuralism: was an attempt to analyze conscious experience by breaking it down into basic elements, & to understand how these elements work together o Wundt tried to analyze consciousness by using introspection o Introspection (“too look within”): subjective observation of one‟s own experience  William James: development of functionalism Helen Li (PSAY01) o Functionalism: the study of he purpose and function of behavior and conscious experience o James ideas were inspired by ideas of Charles Darwin (like natural selection) o Evolutionary psychology: an approach that interprets and explains modern human behavior in terms of forces acting upon our distant ancestors  Professor Edwin Twitmyer: o The study of classical conditioning soon became a focus of -> Behaviorism: an th approach that dominated the first half of the 20 century of American psychology and had a singular focus on studying only observable, with little to no reference to mental events or instincts as possible influenced on behavior o Interested in reflexes -> involving a contraption with a rubber mallet that would regularly tap the patellar tendon just below the kneecap (cause a kicking reflex)  Ivan Pavlov: showed that dogs could learn to salivate to a tone if the tone has a history of sounding just prior to the delivery of food o Carried research on the physiology of digestion  John B. Watson: credit for the rise of behaviorism o Believed that all behavior could ultimately be explained through conditioning -> stipulations about what could & could not be studied in psychology o Believed so much in power of experience (so little in power of genetics) that he was certain he could engineer a personality however he wished, if given enough control over environment o Applied scientific approach with colleagues to advertise & discover a consumer‟s knowledge about the product was not really important, so long as he/she had positive emotions associated with it o Watsons company developed ads that employed behaviorist principles to form products brand image & positive emotions  B.F. Skinner: behaviorist who had considerable influence over American psychology for several decades o Believed that psychology was the study of behavior and not of the observable mind o Sought to discover the principles of how rewards affect behavior -> animals in small chambers o The behaviorists believed that the foundation of psychology could be established through conducting experiments on how rewards and punishment motivate and influence our behavior  Humanistic psychology: focuses on the unique aspects of each individual human, each persons freedom to act, his or her rational though, and the belief that humans are fundamentally different from other animals -> Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow… focused on positive aspects of humanity and factors that lead to a positive and fulfilling life o Sought to understand meaning of personal experience o Believed people could attain mental well being & satisfaction thorough gaining a greater understanding of themselves, rather than being diagnosed with a disorder or having their problems labeled o Both believed humans strive to develop a sense of self & motivated to personally grow & fulfill their potential  Humanistic perspective contrasted with behaviorism in proposing that humans had the freedom to act & a rational mind to guide the process  Hermann Ebbinhaus: produced reams of data on remembering and forgetting -> results of his studied produced numerous “forgetting curves” Helen Li (PSAY01)  Frederick Bartlett: able to illustrate that memory is an interpretive process that involves cultural knowledge o Memory is not a photographic reproduction of past exp & that out attempts to recall the past are influenced by our knowledge, beliefs, hopes, aspirations & desires  James Mill: o Materialism: notion that we did not have a soul o Everything is made up of material matter that follows material laws o We are all material people living in a material world  Luigi Galvani: o Made frog legs “jump” using electivity o Changed from us being hydraulic to having currents o From empiricism point of view, more proof that humans are like machines  Johannes Muller: o When cutting bodies, realized that we had nerve fibers that deliver electrical signals to muscles, organs, etc o Suggested that things like the brain were modular (like machines) o Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies  Thomas Hobbes: o Argued that the mind & body are not different things at all, rather the mind is what the brain does  Pierre Flourens: o Removed specific parts of the brains of animals; proved Franz Joseph Gall‟s idea that specific parts of the brain have specific functions. Further suggesting that brain was a machine o Ablation Studies  Gestalt (German word for complete form of an object) psychology: an approach emphasizing that psychologists need to focus on the whole of perception and experience, rather than its parts o Gestalt psychologists argues that much of our thinking & experience occur at a higher, more organized level than Wundt  Emergence of computers led to re-emergence of interest in mental processes all across the discipline of psychology -> led to creation of cognitive psychology o Cognitive psychology: modern psychological perspective that focuses on processes such as memory, thinking and language  Norman Triplett: conducted first formal experiments in area observing how that cyclists ride faster in the presence of other people than when riding alone  Events in Nazi-controlled Germany that led to World War II contributed to development of new perspective of psychology  Research on social influences began as a result of collaborations between socialists (study of pop. of humans) and psychologists (studying individuals at same time)  Kurt Lewin: trained as a gestalt psychologist -> shifted attention to race relations in the U.S o Believed all behaviors could be predicted & explained through understanding how an individual with a specific set of traits would respond in a context that involved a specific set of conditions  Cross- cultural psychology: field that draws comparisons about individual and group behavior among cultures; helps us understand the role of society in shaping behavior, beliefs & values Helen Li ( PSAY01) Chapter 1.3 Putting Psychology to Work: Careers in Psychology and Related Fields  Applied psychology: uses psychological knowledge to address problems and issues across various settings and professions, including law, education, clinical psychology, and business organization and management  Psychiatry: a branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of mental & behavioral disorders o Major diff between most clinical psychologists & psychiatrists is that psychiatrists prescribe medications  Forensic psychology: includes work in the criminal justice system, including interactions with the legal system and its professions  School psychology: involves working with students, who have special needs, such as those with emotional, social, or academic problems (rarely work alone)  Health psychology: (or behavioral medicine), the study of how individual, biological and environmental factors affect physical health  Psychological traits such as pessimism & hopelessness are correlated with impaired immune functioning & lower recovery rates from major surgeries, diseases or accidents  Physicians treat physiological effects of a disease, psychologists help to change the related behaviors  Industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology: a branch of applied psychology in which psychologists work for business and other organizations to improve employee productivity and the organizational structure of the company/ business o Human factors phycology: study of how people interact with tools, physical spaces/ products (highest branch of applied psychology; a great deal of human factors work applies principles of sensation & perception to complex work environments such as aircraft cockpits/ laparoscopic surgical devices) o Environmental psychology: stud factors that improve working & living conditions -> help to reduce distractions/ strain/ strain/ fatigue  Caveat emptor- “Buyer, beware!” Chapter 2.1: Principles of Scientific Research  Objectivity assumes that certain facts about the world can be observed and tested independently from individual  Subjective -> knowledge of event if shaped by prior beliefs, expectations, experiences and even mood  5 characteristics of quality scientific research: 1) Based on measurements that are objective, valid, and reliable 2) Can be generalized 3) Uses techniques that reduce bias 4) Made public 5) Can be replicated  Objective measurements: the measure of an entity or behavior that, within an allowed margin of error, is consistent across instruments and observers (E.g. weight is something that can be measured objectively)  Variable: refers to the object, concept, or event being measured (E.g. instruments to measure variables such as speedometer on dashboard of car)  High tech equipment such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows researchers to view the brain Helen Li ( PSAY01)  Self- reporting: a method in which responses are provided directly by the people who are being studied, typically through face-to-face interviews, phone surveys, paper and pencil tests and web-based questionnaires o May inquire about shyness, mood, or political orientation by asking respondents to rate their agreement with a set of statements (1-7 scale)  Operational definitions: statements that describe the procedures (or operations) and specific measures that are used to record observations  Reliability: when it provides consistent and stable answers across multiple observations and points in time o High reliability means that judges tend to be in agreement; in other words, if one judge gives you a high score, then the others should  Validity: the degree to which an instrument or procedure actually measures what it claims to measure (e.g. tape measure should give same answer each time a specific foot is measured)  Reliability & validity are essential components of scientific research o Very important that knowledge gained from scientific studies have usefulness that extends beyond laboratory  Generalizability: refers to the degree to which one set of results can be applied to other situations, individuals, or events o One way to increase possibility that research results will generalize is to study a large group of subjects  Population: group that researches want to generalize about  Sample: a select group of population members  Random sample: every individual of a population has an equal change of being included o Help research results generalize across individuals  Convenience samples: samples of individuals who are most readily available  Two primary research settings: 1. Laboratory research: environment controlled by researcher 2. Naturalistic research: takes place where the behavior would typically occur  Ecological validity: degree to which the results of a laboratory study can be applied to or repeated in the natural environment  Hawthorne effect: term used to describe situations in which behavior changes as a result of being observed o Common sources of bias that can affect research studied, including biases on part of those who are conducting the experiments (researcher bias) & biases created by participants of studies who are aware that their behavior is under investigation (subject bias)  Demand characteristics: inadvertent cues given off by the experimenter or the experimental context that provide information about hos participants are expected to behave (can range from subtle to obvious influences on behavior) Helen Li ( PSAY01) o Can take form of responding based on social desirability (a.k.a. socially desirable responding: research participants respond in ways that increase the chances that they will be viewed favorably)  Placebo effect: a measurable and experienced improvement in health or behavior that cannot be attributable to a medication or treatment o Comes from drug studies -> actually an actively researched topic that brings with psychology and medicine together  Techniques to reduce bias: o Anonymity: each individuals responses are recorded without any name or other personal info that could link a particular individual to specific results o Confidentiality: results will only be seen by researcher  Single- blind study: participants do not know the true purpose of the study, or else do not know which type of treatment they are receiving (e.g. a placebo or a drug) o Subjects are “blind” to the purpose of the study  Double- blind study: neither the participant nor the experimenter knows the exact treatment for any individual o To carry out: researcher must arrange for an assistant to conduct the observations  Blinding techniques serve to reduce subject & experimenter bias  Peer review: process in which papers submitted for publication in scholarly journals are read and critiques by experts in the specific field of study  Two main tasks: 1. Editor receives manuscript from researcher & determines if appropriate subject matter for journal o Editor sends copies of manuscript to a select group of peer reviewers  Replication: process of repeating a study and finding a similar outcome each time (e.g. Mozart effect)  Anecdotal evidence: an individuals story or testimony about an observation or event that is used to make a claim as evidence  Appeal to authority: the belief in an “expert‟s” claim even when no supporting data or scientific evidence is present o Possible that expert is mistaken, dishonest, overpaid, or misquoted o Other cases: experts have a hidden agenda or “conflict of interest” o Important to look at what the expert stands to gain by lending his/her name to a product or scientific theory  Appeal to common sense: a claim that appears to be sound but lacks supporting scientific evidence  In addition to common sense, beliefs can originate from other potentially unreliable sources (e.g. appeals to tradition -> “we have always done it this way!” as well as their opposite, appeals to novelty -> “it is the latest thing”) => lead people to believe wrong things Chapter 2.1 Scientific Research Designs  Case study: in-depth report about the details of a specific case  Naturalistic observation: they modestly observe and record behavior as it occurs in the subjects natural environment (e.g. research on gorillas)  Correlational research: involves measuring the degree of association between two or more variables o Correlations can be visualized when presented in a graph => scatterplot (Dots show a pattern that slopes upward and to the right (positive correlation) Helen Li ( PSAY01) o Correlations take a direction; may be positive => both variables occur together OR negative => the more of one variable, the less of the other o Correlations have a magnitude/ strength a.k.a. in mathematical terms is called correlation coefficient o In many cases, the impression that one variable causes the other, but that relationship cannot be determined from correlational research  Third variable problem: refers to the possibility that a third, unmeasured variable is actually responsibly for a well- established correlation between two variables  Illusory correlations: relationships that really exist only in the mind, rather in reality  Experimental designs improve on descriptive & correlational studies because they are inly designs that can provide evidence for cause- and-effect relationships o Min of two variables, but two key differences between correlational research and experiences: the random assignment of the participants and the experimenters control over the variables being studied  Random assignment: a technique for dividing samples into two or more groups  Random assignment allows to assume the two groups will be roughly equal  Confounding variables: variables outside of the researchers control that might affect the results- could potentially enter the picture  Dependent variable: which is the observation or measurement that is recorded during the experiment & subsequently compared across all groups (e.g. the variable to depend on whether the participants are exposed to the second variable… hence “dependent”)  Independent variable: variable that the experimenter manipulates to distinguish between the two groups  Experimental group: is the group in the experiment that is exposed to the independent variable (e.g. exposure to humor)  Control group: does not receive the treatment and, therefore, serves as a comparison  Random assignment & manipulation of a variable => required for experiments o Allow researches to make case differences between groups originate from independent variable  Quasi-experimental research: research technique in which the two or more groups that are compared are selected based on predetermined characteristics, rather than random assignment (e.g. researcher compares group of Republicans & Democrats on a measure of beliefs about poverty. What makes this a quasi-experimental design? The researcher is comparing preexisting groups rather than randomly assigning people to them) Chapter 2.3: Ethics in Psychological Research  Institutional review board (IRB): a committee of researchers and officials at an institution charges with the protection of human research participants o Protect individuals in two main ways: 1) Committee weighs potential risks to volunteers against possible benefits of research Helen Li ( PSAY01) 2) Requires that volunteers agree to participate  Majority: minimal exposure to physical/ mental stress o Some studies have even exposed humans to the virus that causes the common cold, or make small cuts to skin to study factors that affect healing  Examples of possible cognitive & emotional stress: o Mortality salience: participants are more aware of death (e.g. asked to read/ write about what happens to a human body after death) o Writing about upsetting or traumatic experiences: death of a loved one or being laid off from a long term job might be asked to write these experiences in great detail  These stressful situations have potential benefits => applied to other people, motivated by several factors- including desire to help others, drive to satisfy their intellectual curiosity and eve their own livelihood & employment  Informed consent: a potential volunteer must be informed (know the purpose, tasks, and risks involved in the study) and give consent (agree to participate based on the info provided) without pressure  Deception: misleading or only partially informing participants of the true topic or hypothesis under investigation -> amounts to a “white lie”  Debriefing: meaning that the researchers should explain the true nature of the study, and especially the nature of and reason for the deception  Full consent: o Freedom to choose: not be at risk for financial loss/ physical harm/ damage to reputation if chosen not to participate o Equal opportunities: volunteers should have choices o The right to withdraw: should have right to withdraw from study, at any time, without penalty. The tight to give informed consent stayed with the participants throughout the entire study o The right to withhold responses: volunteers responding to surveys or interviews should not have to answer any question that they feel uncomfortable answering o Anonymity: data collected during research study cannot be connected to individual participants  Confidentiality: 1) Researches cannot share specific data/ observations that can be connected with an individual 2) Records must be kept secure (identities cannot be revealed unintentionally)  Most significant reason is that scientists can administer treatments to animals that could never be applied to humans => highly beneficial to modern research on medical treatments & vaccines o Scientists can manipulate the breeding of laboratory animals to meet needs of their experimental procedures o Selective breeding allows for study of highly similar groups of subjects => help control for individual differenced based on genetic factors o Different standards from human => animals (e.g. do not ask for informed consent from animals) but procedures have been put in place to ensure that risk & discomfort in most humane way  Three main areas of ethical treatment: 1) Basic care of laboratory animals (appropriate housing, feeding, sanitation) 2) Minimization of any pain or discomfort experienced by animals 3) Researchers must ensure that pain can be justified by potential benefits of research (if animals are to be sacrificed for research) Helen Li ( PSAY01)  Once data are reported in a journal/ conference, should be kept for a reasonable amount of time… 3-5 years is acceptable o Purpose of keeping data: relates to public nature of good research  Scientists must be honest with their data (some experience great external pressure to obtain certain results)  Cases of scientific misconduct sometimes arise when individuals fabricate/ manipulate their data to fit desired results  Possible to minimize by requiring to acknowledge any potential conflicts of interest, which might include personal financial gain from an institution/ company that funded the work… most publish journal articles can see which agency/ organization funded for study (not just goodwill gesture but to inform public there is potential for a company/ government agency to influence research) Chapter 2.4: A Statistical Primer  Descriptive statistics: a set of techniques used to organize, summarize, and interpret data… three types: frequency, central tendency, variability  Distribution: the location of where the scores cluster on a number line and to what degree they are spread out … bar graph/ histogram  Frequency: the number of observations that fall within a certain category or range of scores 1) Bargraphs o Very easy to interpret (higher the bar, the more scores that fall in specific range) 2) Histograms o Great way to present data but can present same data with smooth line called a curve  Symmetrical curve: left half is the mirror image of the right half  Normal distribution (sometimes called the bell curve): is a symmetrical distribution with values clustered around a central mean value  Negatively skewed distribution: occurs when the curve has an extended tail to the left of the cluster  Positively skewed distribution: occurs when the long tail is on the right of the cluster  Central tendency: a measure of the central point of a distribution  Mean: arithmetic average of a set of numbers (Sum of total / total # of scores)  Median: the 50 percentile- the point on the horizontal axis at which 50% of all observations are lower, and 50% of all observations are higher (THE MIDDLE)  Mode: the category with the highest frequency (that is, the category with the most observations)  The mean, median, & mode are three favored measures of central tendency  Variability: degree to which scores are dispersed in a distribution  Whenever physiologists report data from their research, their measures of central tendency are virtually always accompanied by measures of variability  Standard deviation: measure of variability around the mean o Think of: estimate of average distance from the mean  Statistical significance: which implies that the means of the groups are farther apart than you would expect them to be by random chance alone  Given how much overlap there is between the two distributions, small differences in mean scores will bot be significantly different  Hypothesis test: a statistical methods of evaluating whether differences among groups are meaningful, or could have been arrived at by chance alone Helen Li ( PSAY01) o Results of a hypothesis test will tell if two groups are significantly diff because of independent variable) with a certain degree of probability Chapter 3.1: Genetic and Evolutionary Perspectives on Behavior  Genes: basic units of heredity; they are responsible for guiding the process of creating the proteins that make up our physical structures and regulate development and physiological processes throughout the life span  Genes are organized along chromosomes: structures in the cellular nucleus that are lies with all of the genes an individual inherits o Humans have approx. 30,000 genes distributed across 23 pairs of chromosomes (half contributed by mother, half from father)  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): a molecule formed in a double-helix shape that contains four amino acids: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine o Each gene is a unique combo of these four amino acids  Genotype: refers to the genetic makeup of an organism (the unique set of genes that compose every chromosome represents the genotype of the individual)  Phenotype: consists of the observable characteristics, including physical structures and behaviors  The genotype represents what was inherited, whereas the phenotype represents the physical and behavioral manifestation of the genotype through interactions with the environment  Homozygous: if two corresponding genes at a given location on a pair of chromosomes are the same  Heterozygous: if two genes differ at a give location on a pair of chromosome  Some people are “tasters”; they cringe at the bitter taste of PTC, others the “nontasters”- cannot taste anything other than the tab of paper o Those who are tasters inherit at least one copy of the dominant gene for tasting (abbreviated capital T) from either parent o People can also inherit a recessive copy of this gene (t) o Those who report tasting PTC are either homozygous recessive (tt)- they inherited a recessive copy of the gene from both parents  Behavioral genetics: is the study of how genes and environment influence behavior o Typically involved comparing people of diff levels of relatedness such as parents & their offspring‟s, siblings, & unrelated individuals, etc.  Twins -> great opportunity to conduct natural experiments on how genes influence behavior… one method commonly used involved comparing identical & fraternal twins:  Monozygotic twins: come from a single ovum (egg) which makes them genetically identical  Dizygotic twins (fraternal twins): come from two separate eggs fertilized by two different sperm cells tat share the same womb  More likely for both monozygotic twins to show anxiety or depressive symptoms than for both dizygotic twins  Heritability: a statistical, expressed as a number between zero, and one, that represents the degree to which genetic differences between individuals contribute to individual differences in a behavior or trait found in a population o 0 = genes don‟t contribute to individual diff in traits o 1.0= genes account for all individual diff in a trait  Behavioral geneticists also study adopted children => estimate genetic contributions to behavior Helen Li ( PSAY01) o The adopted family rep. the nurture side of the continuum, whereas the biological family rep. the nature side o For intelligence, heritability seems to increase with age, whereas the opposite is true for depression & anxiety  Behavioral genomics: study of DNA and the ways in which specific genes are related to behavior (e.g. Human Genome Project)  Genes are basis for why each individual is unique (except for twins)  Best scientific explanation for this diversity => Charles Darwin  Heritable traits, both physical & behavioral pass from one generation to the next through sexual reproduction o Some called adaptations- contribute to survival, health, & sexual behavior o Individuals with these traits are more likely to pass on their genes to next generation compared to individuals with traits that do not contribute, or perhaps even hurt, chances for survival and reproduction  Evolution: the change in the frequency of genes occurring in an interbreeding population over generation  Natural selection: process by which favorable traits become increasingly common in a population of interbreeding individuals, while traits that are unfavorable become less common  Evolutionary change is gradual- effects of natural selection on a trair may take numerous generations  Physical attraction is one of many important qualities people value in their mates- whether long/ short term  Women valued men with strong financial prospects, status, & good health  Men identified love, commitment, character, and maturity as important to long term arrangements, but placed greater emphasis on physical beauty, youth, & other characteristics related to reproduction  Male preferences are consistent with motivation to have as many healthy offspring as possible in lifetime  Social influences affect performance on examinations (stereo threat)  People who inherit one copy of each gene (heterozygous) show intermediate responses to stressful events Chapter 3.2: How the Nervous System Works: Cells and Neurotransmitters  Nervous system acts as a complex communications network transmitting & receiving info throughout body o Signals pain, pleasure, emotion; it controls our reflexive responses as well as our voluntary movements such as reaching & walking & even regulates such basic processes as breathing & heart rate  Neurons: one the of major types of cells found in the nervous system, which are responsible for sending & receiving messages throughout body (some extend from spinal cord out to extremities, others are very short & may end almost as soon as they begin)  Cell body (a.k.a soma): part of a neuron that contains the nucleus that houses the cells genetic material  Dendrites: the small branches radiating from the cell body, receive messaged from other cells & transmit the message toward the cell body  Axon: structure that transports info from the neuron to neighboring neurons in the form of electrochemical reactions (at the end of the axon are axon terminals)  Located within the axon terminals are chemicals called neurotransmitters: the chemicals that function as messengers allowing neurons to communicate with each other Helen Li (PSAY01)  Synapses: the microscopically small spaces that separate individual nerve cells  Sensory neurons: fetch info from the bodily senses & bring it toward brain (neurons that respond to touch/ pain sensations of skin bring message toward the spinal cord & to brain)  Motor neurons: carry messages away from brain & spinal cord & towards muscles in order to control their flexion & extension  Myelin: fatty sheath that insulates axons from one another, resulting in increased speed & efficiency of neural communication o Multiple sclerosis is a disease in which immune system doesn‟t recognize myelin & attacks it- process that can devastate structural & functional integrity of nervous system o Problems with voluntary, coordinated movement, owing to breakdown of myelin that supports motor nerves o Myelin: made from highly abundant type of sell called glia (Greek for “glue”)  Glial cells: specialized cells of the nervous system that are involved in mounting immune responses in the brain, removing wastes, and synchronizing activity of billions of neurons that constitute the nervous system (manufactures myelin) o Outnumber neurons in brain by ratio of: 10:1 o Structural characteristics of glial cells differ from those of the sensory & motor nerves (perform diff functions)  Inner & outer environments of a neuron differ in their concentrations of charges atoms called: ions o Neuron is polarized Helen Li ( PSAY01)  Resting potential: of a neuron refers to its relatively stable state during which the cell is not transmitting messages o High concentration of positively charges ions, particularly sodium & potassium,
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