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PSYA01H3: Lecture Notes (Final Exam)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

LEC123 What is Psychology Study of the human mindStudy of consciousness and unconsciousnessHuman BehaviorHistory of Psychology 1800sImportance of Souls To pursue something scientifically one must understand the behavior of a thing which conforms to some sort of natural laws to predict future behaviorHumans are controlled by a soul meaning they are responsible for their actionsSouls are spiritual entities which do not conform to natural laws2 kinds of viewsAnimism ANYTHING in the world being able to have a soul and desires Battery Laptop Animals Humans etcEven the Weather is described to have a soul You must respect the feelings of the cloud in order for rain if a drought occurs near a farm etcMagic IntelligenceSoul is the sameThe reason why we all think we have souls are the reasons why we think we are mystical and spiritual is because we dont understand how we can do the things we doRene Descartes 15961650 Cartesian DualismMachine controlled by a soulArgued that animals have no souls and that humans are dualistic creatures being able to have a machine part like the animals Meaning a part of us is just like the animals but we also have a soul that can control the machinery that is the only difference between humans and animalsDuring the inventions of the pressure plates and hydraulics Rene stepped on a pressure plate as he was approaching the statue of Diana causing water to flow through from behind the statue Since there was another statue blocking the way of the hydraulic the force of the water pushed the statue on to Renes path shocking him o Nonliving objects have a soulJohn Locke 16321704 Mind is MachineArgued that humans are fully machines unlike Renes dualistic viewLa Table RassaThat we are born a blank slate that life makes us who we areEmpiricismKnowledge that only comes from a source acquired by means of experimentationsobservations James Mill 17731836 MaterialismNotion that we are completely and utterly physicalLuigi Galvani 17371798 Argued that we humans are partially machines electrochemicalMeaning electrical stimulation to the muscle is enough to make it contract in order to produce animation The ability to make a dead object move because of electrochemical meaning being able to take advantage of chemical reactions through introduction of electrical energyJohannes Muller 18011858 Had access to human bodiesDiscovered that the human bodies are made up of wires called Neural Circuits o Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energieshuman body in machine terms Pierre Florens 17741867 Started a study called Ablation Studies which was to take the body of an animal do a bunch of tests And then using surgery to destroy certain parts of its brain After the damaging the brain Pierre allowed the animal to recover and then restart the process by doing a bunch of tests on it again o Human body is a lot like a machine Paul Broca 18241880 Visited hospitals occasionally and noticed that many of the patients had the same symptom with respect to a characteristic that makes us human the LanguageQuestioned all the patients in a hospital if he Paul could break open each and every one of the patients brains when they die oProduction of Language To conclude Do we have souls According to scientists and philosophical thinkers we as humans consists of a lot of material and that part should behave according to natural lawsWhy Germany PreWorld War 1 GermanyVery strong economical country
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