Chapter 1-8.docx

14 Pages
145 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1.1 – The Science of Psychology • Anthropomorphism – the act of treating objects or animals like humans • Psychology – the scientific study of behaviour, thought and experience • Scientific Method – a way of learning about the world through collecting observations  proposing explanations  developing theories  making predictions • Hypothesis – testable prediction about processes that can be observed and measured o You do not need to prove a hypothesis, just confirm or deny • Pseudoscience – refers to ideas that are presented as science but do not utilize basic principles of scientific thinking or procedures • Theory – an explanation for a broad range of observations that also generates new hypotheses and integrates numerous findings into a coherent whole o Built from hypothesis that are repeatedly tested and confirmed o Any scientific theory must be falsifiable: they can be proved false with new evidence • Biopsychosocial model – a means of explaining behaviour as a product of biological, psychological and sociocultural factors o Biological: hormones, genes, brain anatomy, evolution, drugs o Psychological: behaviour, perception, thought, experience o Sociocultural: interpersonal relationships, families, groups, society, ethnicity • Scientific Literacy – the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific information Chapter 1.2 – How Psychology became Science • Essentialism – human tendency to ascribe significance to some objects but not to others • Empiricism (John Locke) – philosophical belief that knowledge comes through experience o Based on careful observation, not common sense or speculation • Determinism – belief that all events are governed by lawful, cause-effect relationships • Zeitgeist – general set of beliefs of a particular culture at a specific time in history o Prevented rise of psychology as a science, as people in 1600s were not ready to accept human behaviour as result of predictable physical laws; doing so would imply: • Materialism (James Mill) – belief that humans and other living beings are composed only of physical matter o Humans only complex machines that lack a self-conscious, self-controlling soul o Opposing belief, that there is a mind separate from physical body, called dualism (Renee Descartes) • Luigi Galvani was one of the first to study bioelectricity, when he discovered that the muscles of dead frog legs twitched when struck by a spark (1771) • Psychophysics – the study of relationship between the physical and mental world o Coined by Gustav Fechner who worked on sensation and perception o Found people will identify 10% difference in weight; right hand notices weight more • Charles Darwin said behavior is shaped by natural selection, just as physical traits are • Clinical Psychology – field of psychology that concentrates on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders o Brain localization – certain parts of the brain control specific mental abilities and personality characteristics • Two competing views on brain localization: phrenology and approach that entailed study of brain injuries and how they affect behavior • Phrenology – brain consisted of 27 “organs”, corresponding to mental traits and dispositions that could be detected by examining the surface of the skill • Broca’s Area – identified by Paul Broca as part of brain where speech production is localized • Wernicke’s Area – identified by Karl Wernicke and involved in the understanding of written and spoken language • Psychosomatic medicine – phenomena where patients were cured by belief in medicine (Fraz Mesmer) • Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies – nature of perception is defined by pathway over which the sensory information is carried; the difference between seeing and hearing not caused by different input but by the different structures these stimuli excite – James Muller • Ablative Studies – destruction of brain tissue to understand the effects caused on physical body – Pierre Flourens • Psychoanalysis – psychological approach that attempts to explain how behaviour and personality are influenced by unconscious processes – developed by Freud • William Wundt established first laboratory dedicated to studying human behaviour; established psychology as a field o Studied sense and perception by way of introspection o Concluded mental activity is not instantaneous, requires a small amount of effort (1/8s) • Structuralism – attempt to analyze conscious experience by breaking it down into basic elements, and understanding how these elements work together • Functionalism – study of the purpose and function of behavior and conscious thought o Our brains and behaviour shaped by the physical and social environments that our ancestors encountered • Behaviourism – approach that studied only observable behavior, with little reference to the influence of mental factors or instincts o Popularized in US by John Watson, continued by B.F. Skinner o Criticized because if behaviour only controlled by external rewards, it means no free will • Humanistic psychology born largely as direct counter-response to Freud’s focusing on the negative aspects of humanity o Focuses on the unique aspects of each individual human and that humans are fundamentally different from animals o Humans strive to develop sense of self and motivated to grow and develop potential • Cognitive Revolution – emphasis for psychology to focus on studying mental processes like thought, perception, memory and learning (cognitive psychology) • Gestalt Psychology – approach emphasizing that psychologists need to focus on the whole of perception and experience rather than its parts (The Whole is Greater than the Sum of its Parts) • Herman von Ebbinghaus – studied memory and discovered forgetting curve and spacing effect Chapter 2.1 – Principles of Scientific Research • Objective Measurement – measure of an entity or behaviour that is consistent across instruments and observers, with small margin of error • Operational definitions – statements that describe the procedures (operations) and specific measures that are used to record observations – How do we know someone is drunk? • Reliability – provides strong and stable results across multiple observations and points in time • Validity – the degree to which an instrument actually measures what it claims to measure • Ecological Validity – the degree to which lab results can be applied to or repeated in natural environment • Hawthorne effect – term used to describe situations in which behaviour changes as a result of being observed • Demand characteristics – inadvertent cues given by experimenter or experimental context that provide information about how participants are supposed to behave • Social desirability – participants respond in ways that increase chances they are viewed favourably • Single-blind study – participants do not know true purpose of study, or do not know which type of treatment they are receiving • Double-blind study – neither participant not researcher knows the exact treatment for any individual • Replication – process of repeating a study and finding a similar outcome each time • Poor evidence comes from: o Anecdotes – an individual’s story or testimony about an observation or event that is used to make a claim as evidence o Appeal to authority – the belief in an “expert’s” claim even when no supporting data or scientific evidence is present o Appeal to common sense – claim that appears to be sound, but lacks scientific evidence Chapter 2.2 – Scientific Research Designs • Correlational studies – measuring the degree of association between two or more variables o Correlations have a direction: positive (both variables occur together) or negative (more of one variable, less of the other) o Correlations have a magnitude: described in terms of correlation coefficient ranging from -1.0 to +1.0. the closer it is to 1.0, the stronger the relationship • Confounding variables – variables outside of researcher’s control that might affect results • Quasi-experimental research – research technique in which groups being compared are selected based on pre-determined characteristics, not random assignment (man vs. women) Chapter 2.3 – Ethics in Psychological Research • Mortality salience is research where participants are made more aware of death Chapter 2.4 – A Statistical Primer • Descriptive Statistics – set of techniques used to organize, summarize and interpret data o Frequency, central tendency, variability • Frequency – the number of observations that fall within a certain category or range • Central tendency – measure of the central point of a distribution using mean, median or mode • Variability – degree to which scores are dispersed in a distribution • Standard deviation – measure of variability around mean • Statistical significance – mean of group are farther apart than you would expect them to be by random chance alone • Hypothesis effect – statistical method of evaluating whether differences among groups are meaningful, or could have arrived at by chance alone Chapter 3.1 – Genetic and Evolutionary Perspectives on Behaviour • Behavioral genetics – study of how genes and environment influence behavior • Monozygotic twins come from single egg (identical twins), Dizygotic twins come from two eggs (fraternal twins) • Heritability – a statistic, expressed as a number between zero and one, that represents the degree to which genetic differences between individuals contribute to individual differences in a behavior or trait found in population o 0 means genes do not contribute to individual differences in a trait o 1 means genes contribute to all individual differences in a trait • Behavioral genomics – study of DNA and the ways in which specific genes are related to behavior Chapter 3.2 – How the Nervous System Works • Neurons – type of cell responsible for sending and receiving messages throughout body o Cell body (soma) – contains nucleus o Dendrites – small branches radiating from cell body that receive and transmit messages from other cells o Axon – transports electrochemical information from neuron to neuron  Neurotransmitters – chemicals that function as messengers allowing communication between neurons  Released across synapses, small spaces that separate individual nerve cells o Myelin – fatty sheath that insulates axons from each other, resulting in increased speed and efficiency  In MS, myelin is not recognized and destroyed  Made from Glial cells that are specialized for mounting immune responses in brain, removing waste and synchronizing neuron activity • Sensory neurons bring information from parts of body to brain (touch, pain, sensations) • Motor neurons carry messages away from brain and spinal cord towards muscle for movement • Resting potential – relatively stable state of neuron which cell is not transmitting messages • Action potential – wave of electrical activity that originates at base of axon and rapidly travels down its length • Synaptic cleft – minute space between terminal button and dendrite • Refractory period – brief period in which neuron cannot fire • All-or-none-principal – individual nerve cells fire at the same strength every time an action potential occurs • Agonists – drugs that enhance or mimic the effect of a neurotransmitter’s action (ex. nicotine) • Antagonists – inhibit neurotransmitter activity by blocking receptors or preventing neurotransmitter synthesis (ex. Botox) • Hypothalamus – brain structure that regulates basic biological needs and motivational systems • Pituitary glands – produces hormones and sends commands about hormone production to other glands of endocrine system • Adrenal glands – pair of endocrine glands located adjacent to the kidneys that release stress hormones Chapter 3.3 – Structure and Organization of Nervous System • Peripheral Nervous System – transmits signals between brain and rest of body. Divided into: o Somatic nervous system – consists of nerves that receive sensory input from the body and control skeletal muscles, responsible for voluntary and reflexive movements o Autonomic nervous system – responsible for regulating activity of organs and glands  Sympathetic nervous system – responsible for fight-or-flight response  Parasympathetic nervous system – helps with homeostasis, brings body back to normal after sympathetic response • Central Nervous System – brain and spinal cord • Brain stem – consists of medulla and pons – breathing, heart rate, sleep and wakefulness • Cerebellum – balance, coordination, timing of movements • Midbrain – relays sensory and motor information, voluntary movement • Forebrain – basal ganglia (movement), amygdala (emotion), hippocampus (memory), hypothalamus (temperature, motivation) • Limbic system – network involved in emotion and memory • Thalamus – involved in relaying sensory information to different regions of brain • Cerebral cortex – thought, language, personality o Corpus callosum – collection of neural fibres connecting two hemispheres o Frontal lobe – planning, regulating, language, voluntary movement o Parietal lobe – bodily awareness, experience of touch o Occipital lobe – visual information processed o Temporal lobe – hearing, language, object and face recognition • EEG measures patterns of brain activity with the use of multiple electrodes attached to scalp Chapter 4.1 – Sensation and Perception at a Glance • Sensation – simple stimulation of a sense organ; basic registration of light, sound, pressure, odor or taste as parts of the body interact with the physical world • Perception – takes place in brain: organization, identification and interpretation of the sensation in order to form a mental representation. • Transduction – sensors convert physical signals into neural ones sent to the CNS. • Sensory adaptation – reduction of activity in sensory receptors with repeated stimulus exposure • Psychophysics – field of study developed by Fechner measuring sensation and perception: methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer’s sensitivity to that stimulus. • Absolute threshold – minimal intensity needed for it to be reliably detected 50% of the time • Difference threshold – smallest detectable difference between two or more stimuli • Signal detection theory: response to a stimulus depends both on a person’s sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person’s judgement • Top-down processing – when prior knowledge and expectations guide what is perceived • Bottom-up processing – constructing a whole stimulus/concept from bits of raw sensory info • Parallel processing – simultaneous use of both concepts as we perceive Chapter 4.2 – The Visual System • Sclera – white part or eye • Cornea – clear layer covering front portion of eye that contributes to ability of eye to focus • Pupil – regulates amount of light that enters by changing its size • Iris – round muscle that adjusts the size of the pupil and gives it colour • Lens – clear structure that focuses light onto the back of the eye • Retina – lines the inner surface of the eye and consists of specialized receptors that absorb light and sends signals related to the properties of light to the brain o Fovea – central region of retina that contains highest concentration of cones o Cones – photoreceptors sensitive to different colour of lights o Rods – photoreceptors occupying peripheral regions of the retina, highly sensitive under low-light levels • Optic nerve – cluster of neurons that gather sensory information, exit at back of eye, and connect with brain • Photoreceptors  optic nerve  optic chiasm  LGN  visual cortex • Binocular depth cues – distance cues that are based on the different perspectives of both eyes • Convergence – occurs when the eye muscles contract so that both eyes focus on a single object • Retinal disparity – difference in relative position of an object as seen by both eyes, which provides information to brain about depth • Monocular cues – depth cues that we perceive with only one eye • Motion parallax – when in motion, objects closer to you move faster while those farther away, slower • Trichromatic theory – maintains that colour vision is determined by three different cone types that are sensitive to short, medium, and long wavelengths of light • Opponent-process theory – we perceive colour in terms of opposite end of the spectrum: red to green, yellow to blue, and white to black Chapter 4.3 – The Auditory System • Pinna – flexible, outer flap of ear which channels sound waves into ear • Auditory canal – conducts sound waves to eardrum •
More Less

Related notes for PSYA01H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit