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Steve Joordens

Lecture 04SOCB05H3Logic of SamplingWe have a large population and then we have a subgroup who we observe andor studysamplingSampling is selecting a subset of observations from a population of interest Often with the attempt with generalizingWho do you want to generalize tooThe theoretical populationWhat population can you get access tooThe study populationHow can you get access to them How do you find themoThe sampling frameWho is in your study Who do I end up doing my study onoThe samplePopulationoThe group about whom you want to draw inferencesStudy populationoThe subset of the population from which sample is actually drawnThe sampling frameoThe actual list from which sampling units are drawnSampling unitsoThe elements available for selection into the sampleSampleoSubset of study population selected for investigationSelection can be either probability or nonprobability samplingBiased samplesoDo not represent the population as a wholeGeneralizabilityoThe ability to apply research to groups or situations beyond those being studied or sample groupoAnother thing for research to be generalizable is that it has to be REPRESENTATIVEFor example has a sample of SOCA01 at UTSC is generalizable to ALL UTSC students FalseIt is NOT representative of all university students We have to think who it reflects then we can decide who to generalize it to For example if you were to study new born babies in Vaughn and took a sample of 1000 babies recently born in Vaughn hospitalsoThe thing wrong with this is that not all babies are born in hospitals as they are born at home or anywhere else Probability sampling Simple random systematic random stratified multistage clusteroIs most likely the primary method of sampling in the social sciences oUsed for more of the quantitative analyses oUnits from the population are randomly selected and each units probability can be calculated Every person in your population would have an equal chance of being included in your sample if not it is NOT a probability sample oBecause of this the sample becomes more representative It allows researchers to engage in statistical data about the results Nonprobability sampling convenience snowball quota theoreticaloAre more suitable for qualitative research Especially in two circumstancesWhen the study is not seeking to search for generalizability When the study is studying the lives or experiences of vulnerable or hard to reach populations For example homeless people Sampling assumptionsQuantitativeoWe want to generalize to the populationoRandom event are predictableoWe can compare random event to our results
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