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PSYA01 Chapter 7 Exam Notes

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Steve Joordens

Psychological ScienceChapter 7 Memory71 Memory SystemsMemory is a collection of several systems that store information in different forms for differing amounts of timeThe AtkinsonShiffrin ModeloMemory is a multistage process Information flows through a brief sensory memory store into shortterm memory where rehearsal encodes it to longterm memory for permanent storage Memories are retrieved from longterm memory and brought into shortterm storage for further processingoThe AtkinsonShiffrin model includes three memory stores sensory memory shortterm memory STM and longterm memory LTMoStores retain information in memory without using it for any specific purposeoControl processes shift information from one memory store to anotheroSome information in STM goes through encoding the process of storing information in the LTM systemoRetrieval brings information from LTM back into STMThis happens when you become aware of existing memories such as what you did last weekSensory memory is a memory store that accurately holds perceptual information for a very brief amount of timeoIconic memory is the visual form of sensory memory and is held for about onehalf to one secondoEchoic memory is the auditory form of sensory memory and is held for considerably longer but still only about five secondsoIconic memory can be detected in a memory experiment the whole report and partial report conditionsIn the whole report condition researchers flash a grid of latters on a screen for a split second and participants attempt to recall as many as possiblethe whole screen Participants generally can report only three or four of the letters and those are all in the same lineIn the partial report condition researchers again flash a set of letters on the screen but the display is followed immediately by a tone that is randomly chosen to be low medium or high After hearing the tone participants are to report the corresponding linebottom middle or top Under these conditions participants still report only three or four of the letters but they can report them from any randomly selected line Because the tone comes after the screen goes blank the only way the participants could get the letters right is if they recalled them from memory Thus it was argued that iconic memory could hold all 12 letters as a mental imageoEchoic memory is for example when someone asks you a question and you say What only to realize that you still have the persons voice in echoic memoryand suddenly say Oh and answer the question before they repeat the questionDistinguishing ShortTerm From LongTerm Memory StoresoShortterm memory STM is a memory store with limited capacity and duration less than a minuteoLongterm memory LTM is a memory store that holds information for extended periods of time if not permanentlyoIf your class was told to study a list of 15 words and then immediately tried to recall the words the serial position effect would occuroThe serial position effect is that in general most people will recall the first few items from a list and the last few items but only an item or two from the middleoProactive interference is when the first information learned occupies memory leaving fewer resources left to remember the newer information Yet we also remember the last few items because they still reside in our STMa pattern referred to as the recency effectoThe last few items on the list create retroactive interferenceoRetroactive interference is when the most recently learned information overshadows some older memories that have not yet made it into longterm memoryThe Working Memory Model An Active STM SystemoRehearsal is when you repeat information until you do not need to remember it anymoreoWorking memory is a model of shortterm remembering that includes a combination of memory components that can temporarily store small amounts of information for a short period of timeoThe working memory model for shortterm remembering can be subdivided into three storage componentsThe phonological loop is a storage component of working memory that relies on rehearsal and stores information as sounds or an auditory codeThe visuospatial sketchpad is a storage component of working memory that maintains visual images and spatial layouts in a visuospatial code
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