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PSYA01H3 (210)

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 4 The brain and its components y 10100 billion nerve cells y Donald Hebb considered how individual nerve cells are organized into larger unit y Proposed specific principles of organization by which these unit were structurally organized and suggested how they could generate the high processes of the brain like memory thought and decision making y Showed how brain functioning could be understood in terms of both the individual cells and the larger networks they comprised y Modulesclusters of nerve cells that communicate with each other have particular functions y Individual modules dont stand aloneconnected to other neural circuit receiving info from some processing this info and sending the results on to other modules Structure of the nervous system y Brain controls behavior processes and retains the info we receive from the env and regulates the bodys physiological processes y Needs to receive info from the bodys sense receptors and must be connected w the muscles and glands of the body it its to affect behavior and physiological processes y Nervous system has 2 divisions o Central nervous systembrain and spinal cordSpinal corda long thin collection of nerve cells attached to the base of the brain and running the length of the spinal column contains circuits of nerve cells that control some simple reflexes o CNS communicates w the rest of the body through nervesbundles of fibers that transmit info in and out of the CNS o Peripheral nervous systemcranial and spinal nervesy Human brain has 3 major parts o brain stemstem of the brain including the medulla pons and midbrainone of the most primitive regions of the brain and functions are correspondingly basic onesprimarily control of physiological functions and automatic behaviors o cerebral hemispheresconstitutes the largest part of the brain and has parts that evolved most recently covered by the cerebral cortex o cerebellumattached to the back of the brain stem control and coordinate movements looks like a mini cerebral hemisphere y vertebraeone of the hollow bones that encase the spinal cord and constitute the vertebral column y meninges3 layered set of membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord y brain and spinal cord dont come into direct contact w the bones of the skull and vertebrae bc floating in CSF y cerebrospinal fluid CSFliquid where the brain and spinal cord float fills space btwn 2 of the meninges and thus gives a shockabsorbing cushion y cerebral cortexouter layer of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain 3mm thick grey matter o perceptions take place memories are stored plans are formulated and take place here y grey matterportions of the CNS that are abundant in cell bodies of neurons rather than axons color appears grey relative to white matter y white matterportions of the CNS that are abundant in axons rather than cell bodies of neurons color derives from the presence of the axons myelin sheaths o nerve cells in cerebral cortex are connected to other parts of the brain by a layer of nerve fibersy cerebral cortex is wrinkled and full of bulges separated by grooves y Bloodbrain barrier a barrier between the blood and brain produced by the cells in the walls of the brains capillaries prevents some substances from passing from the blood to the brain y gyribulges fissureslarge grooves o expand amt of surface area of cortex and greatly increase theof nerve cells in can contain y large and more complex brainmost wrinkled brainslargest cerebral cortexes
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