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final notes.docx

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Steve Joordens

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Chapter 5Sensationdetection of simple properties of stimuli such as brightness colour warmth and sweetnessPerceptiondetection of objects their locations their movements and their backgroundsTransductionconversion of physical stimuli into changes in the activity of receptor cells of sensory organsReceptor cellsneuron that directly responds to a physical stimulus such as light vibrations or aromatic moleculesAnatomical codingmeans by which the nervous system represents information different features are coded by the activity of different neurons Where something happensTemporal codingmeans by which the nervous system represents information different features are coded by the pattern of activity of neurons The intensity of something happeningPsychophysicsbran of psychology that measures the quantitative relation between physical stimuli and perceptual experienceJust noticeable difference jndsmallest difference between 2 similar stimuli that can be distinguished also called difference thresholdWeber fractionsratio between a justnoticeable difference and the magnitude of a stimulus reasonably constant over the middle range of most stimulus intensitiesThresholdpoint at which a stimulus or change in the value of a stimulus can just be detectedDifference thresholdJndAbsolute thresholdminimum value for stimulus that can be detectedSignal detection theorymathematical theory of the detection of stimulus which involves discriminating a signal from the noise in which it is embedded and which takes into account participants willingness to report detecting the signalResponse biastendency to say yes when u are not sure u detected the stimulusReceiver operating characteristic curve ROC curvea graph of hits and false alarms of participants under different motivations condition indicates peoples ability to detect a particular stimulusVision o Wavelength of the visible spectrum is 380760 RedOrangeYellowgreenblueviolet o Each eye is housed in a bony socket and can be covered by the eyelid to keep dust and dirt out The eyelids are edged by eyelashes which help keep foreign matter from falling into the open eye and the eyebrows prevent swear from the forehead to enter the eyeCorneatransparent tissue covering the front of the eyeScleratough outer layer of the eye the white of the eyeIrispigmented muscle of the eye that controls the size of the pupilAqueous humournourishes the cornea and front eyeLenstransparent organ situated behind the iris of the eyes helps focus on an image on the retinaAccommodationchanges in the thickness of the lens of the eye that helps focus images of near or distant objects on the retinaNearsightedeyes are to longFarsightedeyes are too shortRetinatissue at the back inside surface of the eye that contains the photoreceptors and associated neuronsPhotoreceptorsreceptive cell for vision in the retina a rod or coneOptic diskcircular structure located at the exit point from the retina of the axons of the ganglion cells that form optic nerveRodsfunction mainly in dim lightvery sensitive to light but cannot detect differences in colorConesfunction in bright light responsible for color visionFoveasmall pit at the back of the eye contains only cones responsible for detailed vision Photopigmentcomplex molecule found in photoreceptors when struck by light it splits and stimulates the membrane of the photoreceptor which it residesRhodopsinthe Photopigment contained by rodsDark adaptationprocess by which the eye becomes capable of distinguishing dimly illuminated objects after going from a bright area to a dark oneVergence movementscoop movement of the eyes which ensures that the image of an object falls on identical portions of both retinasSaccadic movementsrapid movement of the eyes that is used in scanning a visual scene as opposed to the smooth pursuit movements used to follow a moving objectPursuit movementsmovement that the eyes make to maintain an image of a moving image upon the foveaHuedetermined by the wavelengthBrightnessdetermined by the intensity or degree of radiant energy emitted by a visual stimulusSaturationperceptual dimension of color associated with the purity of the color Color mixingperception of 2 or more lights of different wavelengths seen together as light of an intermediate wavelengthTrichromatic theorytheory that colour vision is accomplished by 3 different types of photoreceptors each of which is maximally sensitive to a diff Wavelength of lightOpponent processrepresentation of colors by the rate of firing of 2 types of neuronsredgreen and yellowblueNegative afterimageimage seen after a portion of the retina is exposed to an intense visual stimuli a negative afterimage consists of colours complimentary to those of the physical stimulus Protanopiaform of hereditary anomalous colour vision caused by the defective red cones in the retinaDeuteranopiaform of hereditary anomalous colour vision caused by the defective green cones in the retinaTritanopiaform of hereditary anomalous colour vision caused by the lack of blue cones in the retina
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