Chapter three.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter three-Humans and Evolution  Biological evolution: changes that take place in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population  Behavioral differences among organisms correspond to genetic and other biological differences  Adaptive significance: the effectiveness of behavior in aiding organism to adapt to changing environmental conditions  Novelty seeking the tendency to engage in behavior that lead to new experiences  High score equals impulsive  Ultimate cause: evolutionary conditions that have slowly shaped the behavior of a species over generations  Proximate causes: immediate environmental events and conditions that affect behavior  Psychologists are interested in understand both ultimate changes of behavior—events and conditions that over successive generations have slowly shaped the behavior of our species—and proximate causes that affect behavior  Clark and Galef (1998) discovered that testosterone from nearby brothers in the womb acts as a proximal cuase for the development of sexual behavior of these males and in its absence, when a male develops next to sisters, causes a deficit in sexual proficiency  Culture: the sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs, and behavior patterns common to a particular group of people  Alfred Russel Wallace developed natural selection same time as Darwin  1831-1836 Darwin leaves on the HMS Beagle, and visited S.A., Australia, South Africa, and indicant oceans  Artificial selection- a procedure in which particular animals are deliberately mated to produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics  Natural selection: the consequence of the fact that, because there are physical and behavioral differences among organism, they reproduce differentially. Within a given population, some animals—the survivors—will produce more offspring than will other animals  Darwin came to conclusion in 1838 but did not publish until 20 years later  Mayr (2000)- suggested evolution has 4 insights: species are not fixed but rather changing; evolution is a branching process implying that all species come from one common ancestor; evolution is continuous with gradual changes; evolution is based on natural selection  Natural selection based on two premises: individuals within population show variability. Second capacity of the environment to sustain a population is limited, producing competition  Reproductive success: the number of viable offspring an individual produces relative to the number of viable offspring produced by other members of the same species  Evolutionary bottom line is not physical strength by reproductive success  Variation: the differences found across individuals of any given species in terms of ther genetic, biological and psychological characteristics  Genotype: an organism genetic makeup  Phenotype: the outward expression of an organism’s genotype; and organism physical characteristics and behavior  Phenotype is proceed by the interaction of its genotype with the environment  The genotype determines how much the environment can influence an organism’s development and behavior  Peter and Rosemary Grant (2002)- discovered that the amount of rainfall and the size of the food supply directly affected the mortality of finches having certain kinds of beaks  Competition: a striving or vying with others who share the same ecological niche for food, mates and territory  Genetics: the study of the genetic makeup of organism and how it influences their physical and behavioural characteristics  Heredity: the sum of the traits and tendencies inherited from a person’s parents and other biological ancestors  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): the DNA structure resembles that of a twisted ladder. Strands of sugar and phosphates are connected by rungs made from nucleotide molecules of adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine  Genes: small units of DNA that direct the synthesis of proteins and enzymes  Genome: the total set of genetic material of an organism  24 different DNA molecules in females and 25 in males  Genes influence our physical and behavioral development through protein synthesis  Enzymes: proteins that regulate the structure of bodily cells and the processes occurring within those cells  Junk DNA called non coding DNA affect evolution  Chromosomes: threadlike structures in the nuclei of living cells, contains genes  Most genes located on chromosomes  Meiosis: the form of cell division by which new sperm and ova are formed. The chromosomes within the cell are randomly rearranged so that new sperm and ova contain 23 individual chromosomes, half of the autosomes  Identical twins occur when a fertilized ovum divides , fraternal twins occur when a woman produces two ova and both are fertilized by di
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