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University of Toronto Scarborough

Chapter 14: Personality pg 452 Psychodynamic Approach: Freud Psychodynamic: is a term used to describe the notion that the mind is in a state of conflict with instincts, reason and conscience -all human behaviour is motivated by instinctual drives and supply psychic energy when activated -if something prevents the psychic energy, psychological disturbances will result -instinctual drives are triggered by events in a persons life -traumatic events may harm the desired state of psychic energy equilibrium Unconscious: the inaccessible part of the mind -unconscious emotion still exerts control over conscious thoughts and actions -the mind represses the memories of traumatic events from being consciously discovered *iceberg metaphor The conscious mind hides the largermore important part of the mind; the unconscious mind -the unconscious exerts influence on the conscious Structure of the mind: Id, Ego, and Superego -the consists of unconscious, preconscious and conscious elements Unconscious: mental events we arent aware of (Id) Conscious: mental events we are aware of Preconscious: mental events that may become conscious through effort Id: unconscious reservoir of libido (insistent, instinctual force thats unresponsive to the demands of reality; primary source of motivation) The id only obeys one rule- pleasure principal: obtain immediate gratification, whatever form it may take I.e. if youre hungry, id compels you to eat -id was a source of unrestrained, uncivilized and ultimately harmful behaviour (chaos ( Ego: general manager of personality -thinking planning and protective self -controls and integrates behaviour -mediates pressures of id, counter pressures of superego and demands of reality -perception, cognition and memory perform the mediation Ego follows reality principal: tendency to satisfy the demands of the id realistically, almost always involving a compromise of the demands of the id and superego -delay gratification of a drive until appropriate foal is located, using defence mechanisms -some functions are unconscious www.notesolution.comSuperego: divided into conscience and ego-ideal Conscience: internalization of rules and restrictions of society- determines which behaviours are permissible and punishes wrong doings with guilt Ego-ideal: internalization of what a person would like to be (goalsambitions) what society values and what the person will strive to achieve -mind is full of conflicts id demands gratification and super ego keeps drives in check by way of internalized prohibitions: rules of behaviour learned in childhood that would protect person from guilt theyd feel if the instinctual drives were allowed to express themselves -result of conflict is compromise formation -between demands of id and suppressive effects of superego Dreams: dreams are motivated by repressed wishes and urges Manifest content of a dream: the storyline; disguised version of the latent content of a dream: hidden image produced by the unconscious -latent content usually will be related to unexpressed wishes generated by instinctual drives Free association: methods where individual is asked to relax, clear mind of current thoughts, and then report all thoughts, images, perceptions, feelings that come to mind -Freud looked for particular patterns in patients report that reveal wishes, fears, worries, that mind may be keeping hidden Defence Mechanisms -ego contains defence mechanisms: mental systems that become active whenever unconscious instinctual drives of the id come into conflict with internalized prohibitions of the superego -ego uses one of its defences when signalled by state of anxiety produced by intrapsychic conflict thus the ego is motivated to apply defence mechanisms 6 most frequently used defence mechanisms: Repression: Freud believed to be most powerful -responsible for actively keeping potentially threatening or anxiety-provoking memories from being consciously discovered -Minds active attempt to prevent memories from traumatic experiences from reaching conscious awareness being unable to remember childhood sexual abuse Reaction Formation: replacing and anxiety-provoking idea with its opposite -behaving in a way thats opposite of how one really feels because true feelings produce anxiety -i.e. hating someone but acting friendly towards them Projection: denying ones own unacceptable id-based desires and finding evidence of these desires in others behaviours -denial of ones unacceptable feelings and desires and finding them in others i.e. denying negative feelings towards a person, but believing that person has negative feelings toward you -would be unacceptable to superego to initiate aggression but acceptable to take pre- emptive action in self-defiance Sublimination: diversion of psychic energy from an unacceptable drive to an acceptable one i.e. one may feel strong sexual desire but outlet is unacceptable due to internalized prohibitions then psychic energy finds another outlet such as an artistic one
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