Ch. 8 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

- ex. sparkler memory.... visual experience leaves Ch. 8 Memory Overview of Memory an image... - Function: just hold info about stimulus long Learning = experience change in behaviour enough for it to become part of short term (brain plasticity) memory... +- 2 seconds Memory: the cognitive processes of encoding, - Not perception, just holds info to perceive storing, and retrieving information Short-term memory: immediate memory for Encoding: the active process of putting stimulus stimuli that have just been perceived. Capacity is information into a form that can be used by our limited in terms of: # items and Time memory Long-term memory: memory in which info is Storage retrieval: the active processes of locating represented on a permanent or near permanent and using info stored in memory basis and has no limits. - info stored in memory for later use Ex. ppl shown 10 000 slides.... still remembered - storage of info is not directly available weeks later Donald Hebb: suggested... - some psychologists argue that this modal model of - brain remembered information in 2 memory distinction; sensory, short-term, long-term different ways: are not accurate, there is no real distinction Dual Trace Theory: the brain either kept between them... memory just has different phases traces of experience in the active state or in of a continuous process. the built in structural state Ex. cars can be made at different factories... or cars - Information that was active was in this can be made in one factory... end product is still a state because neurons were firing functioning car... continuously due to feedback circuits of - this chapter will follow the first model but neurons - repeated firing just strengthened the psychologists know that memory is more complex then this synaptic efficiency lead to structural changes in neurons Two types of sensory memory psychs have - structural change was present even after activity focused on: 1. Iconic Memory (visual sensory memory) ceased... Therefore, info can be active or latent (built Iconic Memory: a form of sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that has just in) been perceived (visible persistence) Experiment to study this form of memory: Richard Atkinson, Richard Shiffrin: proposed... modal model - 9 letters flashed on screen for 50 miliseconds - memory takes three forms: sensory, short, long - ppl had to recall all letters (whole-report term procedure) - first two are active states of information, third is - on avg. Ppl could only remember 5 letters latent Sensory memory: memory in which Was this limitation cuz of the capacity of iconic memory? representations of the physical features of stimulus are stored for a very brief time Partial report procedure: - 9 letters flashed in rows of 3 by 3 - ppl had to read row indicated by some Primary and Recency Effects sound Free-recall task: some1 reads a whole bunch of - when ppl were warned before-hand about letters... you have to recall what they were and which row to look at, they were okay with write down as many as you remember naming the letters... Primacy effect: the tendency to remember words - but when they had to recall a row after a at the beginning of lists better (the words have tone, they had to search their mental image more time to be rehearsed) for the letters Recency effect: the tendency to recall latter - the ability to still easily recall letters froinformation, the last words in a list (the words are memory indicated there was little difference more fresh in our memory) in having the letters physically in front of than having the letters in memory - Therefore, working memory is a type of - when the delay between the flash of letters behaviour that takes place inside our head. and the tone was more than 1 seconds, ppl - Primacy and recency effects are important had difficulty recalling ltrs because they show us the consequence of this behaviour. 2. Echoic Memory (auditory sensory memory) - memory is not a random process dumping random Echoic memory: a form of sensory memory for stuff from the env into your head... it follows a sounds that have just been perceived predictable pattern - when people talk, the beginning of the sound of - we cant observe working memory directly but we the words have to be stored until the end of the can observe its consequences word can be heard - echoic memory holds a representation of the The Limits of Working Memory (time and initial sounds until the entire word has been heard. capacity) - echoic memory can last up to 20 seconds and 1. TIME: allows us to recognize the sounds of our friends Experiment: voices on the phone - ppl presented with random consonants... ex. JRG... Short term or Working Memory - then they had to count backward by 3 from a Encoding of information in the Short Term: three digit number Interaction with the Long-term memory - the consonants remained accessible in memory - information can enter the short-term memory only for a few secs about 15-18 seconds from 2 different ways: from sensory memory or - unexpected distractions seriously disrupt working from long-term memory memory... Eg. If a phone rings.... working memory is no Working memory: memory for new information and information retrieved from long-term memory longer 15-18 secs... 2. CAPACITY: - Working memory represents a sort of behaviour that takes place in our heads - the capacity does not depend on the number of - It lets us remember what we have just words... perceived - it depends on how much meaning the information - It lets us think about what we perceived in has terms of what we already know
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