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Ch. 10 notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
basilli
Semester
Winter

Description
Through talking and writing we share results Ch. 10 Language Languages are flexible systems that use symbols of our exp. to express meaning. True verbal ability [language] is a social behaviour. Perception of Speech Recognition of Speech Focus of this chapter is to study how humans The auditory system performs an amazing task and allows us to recognize speech sounds. There begin learning language in the earliest stages of life and how their language develops as they are two types of sounds: 1. Human vocalization (Speech or Non- reach adulthood. speech :coughs chuckles) 2. Natural sounds Functions of language: - Day-to-day communication - the auditory cortex in the temporal lobes of the brain, both left and right hemispheres respond - A tool in our remembering and thinking more when people hear human vocalizations then - Encode information in memory verbally when they hear natural sounds - Extension of our long-term memory - the left hemisphere plays a greater role in (writing notes) - Enables us to think about very complex analyzing the detailed information of speech because the auditory area in the left hemisphere and abstract issues by encoding them as words and manipulating the words showed a greater response to natural speech in fMRI scans according to logical rules Spking, lstning, wrting, rding = behaviours we What is detailed information? can study First, the basic elements, phonemes of speech are analyzed. Linguists: study rules of language and describe what we do when we speak or write... history of Phonemes: the minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language such languages... as p. - The smallest units of sound that allow us Psycholinguistics: a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour and are to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word more concerned with human cognition than - One distinction we can detect: voice onset with the particular rules that describe language. time - They also study how adults use languages Voice onset time: the delay or length of time and how verbal abilities interact with other cognitive abilities bw the initial sound of a consonant (such as the puffing sound of the phoneme p) and the onset - How children acquire language - How verbal behaviour develops and how of vibration of the vocal cords. Note: a consonant is a speech sound that is children learn to speak from their interactions with adults articulated (spoken) with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Speech and Comprehension - We can distinguish bw p b , t d and k g just by saying the sounds out Through listening and reading we profit from exp. of others loud but we are not able to distinguish bw them if they are unvoiced and just mimed www.notesolution.com - The length of time bw the puff of air and Recognition of Words in Continuous vocal vibrations gives us the ability to Speech: The Importance of learning and distinguish between these letters... voice Context onset time... Experiement: examine brainwave activity when - both hemispheres process auditory sensory people listened to a continous string of sounds differences by distinguishing phonemes - Sounds were composed of short syllabic - regions of the left auditory cortex specialize in sounds spliced together: recognizing special aspects of speech babupudutabatutuibubabupubu - some areas responded to Natural speech - Some of the sounds were taken from the and Computer distorted and unintelligible stream and designated as words: dutaba speech - A special electrical signal called N100 - some areas responded to intelligible but wave appears shortly after people hear lacking normal frequencies of human the onset of a word speakers even if it was highly distorted - When people learned the onset sounds as - the latter regions relies on information words, they showed the N100 response that transcends (goes beyond) the In addition to learning the units of speech, we distortions of individual phonemes... so also learn its content. Context effects the this region is based on lager segments of perception of words through top-down processing. speech (syllables) Cues in the environment helps us understand Experiment: what someone is saying Ex. I scream : Ice cream. - The perception of a phoneme is affected by Even if the speech is not very good, we are able to the sounds that follow it... we recognize perceive from context through top-down speech sounds in pieces larger than processing. individual phonemes - Phonemes are too small to make meaning Understanding the Meaning of Speech out of them... so they are combined to The meaning of a sentence is conveyed through: make morphemes - The words that are chosen Morphemes: the smallest units of meaning in - The order in which the words are language combined - Free morphemes: have meaning on its - The affixes attached to the begend of the own words - Bound morphemes: must be attached to - The pattern of rhythm and emphasis of another morphemes to have meaning the speaker - Ex. Fastest: fast = free morphemes, ist= - The knowledge about the world shared bound m... by the speaker and the listener - Syntax of a particular language Syntax (grammar) We have to follow the rules of determines how phonemes can be a language if we want a listener to understand combined to form morphemes our speech and use words the listener is familiar with and combine them in specific ways. - All languages have syntax and follow certain principles. www.notesolution.com
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