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Ch. 11 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Ch. 11 Intelligence and Suppose we administer 10 different tests of intellectual abilities to a group of people Thinking If each test measures a separate independent ability, the scores of the ppl on one test will be unrelated to the scores on other tests, the Any definition of intelligence depends on varying correlations amongst the tests will be 0 It the tests measure the same abilities, they cultures based on a different range of necessary skills required for survival in that culture. the scores will be related and the correlation Theories of Intelligence will be 1.0 In reality, most of these tests are moderately Is intelligence a global trait or composed of separate, independent abilities? correlated so a person who scores well on a vocab test tends to score well on arithmetic Although psychs have devised tests that give a single number, IQ, it does not mean that and etc. These correlations tend to range from .30 to .70 intelligence is a single general characteristic. So we can conclude that a general factor Hockey player example trying to play baseball accounted for these moderate correlations but couldnt. Pg.327. A persons score on a particular test does There are 2 controversial views on intelligence: depend on 2 things, the persons specific ability and the persons general ability. 1. Specific abilities are totally independent 2. One general factor influences all abilities What is factor analysis? Developed by Karl Pearson and Spearman Spearmans Two factor theory of factor analysis a statistical procedure that intelligence allows researchers to identify underlying Charles Spearman: Proposed that a person commonalities common factors among a performance on a test is determined by two factors: group of tests. g factor: a factor of intelligence that is common to all How does factor analysis work for intelligence tests? intellectual tasks and includes the following: In the case of intelligence tests, these common 1. Apprehension of experience: ppls abilities to factors would be the particular abilities that perceive and understand what they experience affect peoples performance on more than one 2. Eduction of relations: the ability to perceive test. the relations from given facts Suppose that a group of ppl take takes several 3. Eduction of correlates: the ability to apply a different tests of intellectual abilities. rule inferred from on cases to a similar case If the scores of several of these tests of one Ex. doctor is to patient as lawyer is person correlate, than the tests or subtests measure the same factor. to... A factor analysis determines which set of tests forms groups. s factor: a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task. Ex. Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) test was Where does empirical evidence for this theory come applied to 933 people. The correlations each subtest from? had with every other subtest were calculated and subjected to factor analysis: From correlations among various tests of particular intellectual abilities The analysis revealed 3 factors: A, B, C Each test related to each factor to a certain This is how it works: degree
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