psyci101.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Malcolm Mac Kinnon
Semester
Fall

Description
Sleep and Dreaming: Good Night, Mind  Sleep can produce a state of unconsciousness in which the min and the brain apparently turn of the functions that create experience  Dream consciousness involves a transformation of experience called altered stated of consciousness.  Altered stated of consciousness: a form of experience that departs significantly from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind  These states can be accompanied by alterations in body image, changes in thinking etc. Sleep:  The pre-sleep consciousness is called the hypnagogic state-the sudden jerk Sleep Cycle:  Cardian rhythm is the naturally occurring 24 hour cycle  EGG recordings revealed a regular pattern of changes in electrical activity in the brain accompanying the circadian cycle  During waking, these changes involve alteration between high frequency activity during alertness and lower-frequency activity during relaxation  There are five sleep stages. The first stage of sleep, EEG moves to a frequency pattern lower than alpha waves. The second sages of sleep, these patterns are interrupted by short bursts of activity called sleep spindles and k complexes. The deepest stages of sleep are 3 and four, known as slow-wave sleep, in which EEG pattern show activity called delta waves  The fifth sleep stage, REM sleep, a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity, The EEG patterns suggest that the mind at this time is active as it was during waking.  In the first hour of sleep you fall into the fourth, deepest stage of sleep. Sleep Needs and Deprivation:  Robert Stickgold found that people learning a difficult perceptual task kept all night after they finished practicing the task, their learning of the task is wiped out  Sleep following learning appears to be essential for memory consolidation  Memories normally deteriorate unless sleep occurs to help keep them in place  A few hours of sleep deprivation each night might have detrimental effects: reducing mental acuity, reaction time etc.  Rem sleep deprivation causes memory problems and excessive aggression  Deprivation from slow-wave sleep creates more physical effects such as tiredness and fatigue  Sleep is potentially costly in the course of evolution Sleep Disorder:  Insomnia: difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep. This is caused by stressful events.  Sleeping pills are often reduce however they reduce the proportion of time spent in REM and slow-wave sleep  Sleep apnea: disorder in which person stops breathing for a brief period while sleeping. A person with apnea snores, apnea involves an involuntary obstruction of the breathing passage  Somnambulism-sleepwalking: occurs when a person arises and walks around while sleeping  Narcolepsy: disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities. This involves intrusion of a dreaming stage into waking and is accompanied by unrelenting excessive sleepiness and uncontrollable sleep attacks  Sleep paralysis: the experience of waking up unable to move  Night terrors: Is abrupt wakening with panic and intense emotional arousal. Dreams Consciousness  The quality of consciousness in dreaming is also altered significantly from waking consciousness. There are five characteristics of dream consciousness that distinguish it from the waking states  We intensely feel emotion  Dreams thought is illogical, time place and person don’t apply  Sensation is fully formed and meaningful, visual sensation is predominant  Dreaming occurs with uncritical acceptance  We have difficulty remembering the dream once it’s over  Dreams that reflect the days experience tend to single out sensory experience or objects from waking life Dream Theories:  Freud proposed that dreams are confusing and obscure because the dynamic unconscious creates them precisely to be confusing and obscure  Freud also believe that these dreams represent wishes such sexual desires/  According to Freud, the manifest of a dream: a dream’s apparent topic or superficial meaning is a smoke
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