PSYA02 chpt 14,16,18 text notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

Chapter 14: Personality N Locus of Control (Julian Rotter) o Internal locus of control (control own fate) o External locus of control (controlled by external forces) N Psychodynamic approach (Sigmund Freud) o ^Z Z] L2_ Suppression of psychic energy neuroticism (in unconsciousness) Repression of traumatic events o Id, ego, superego (ice berg) Iibido (Id) pleasure principle Reality principle (ego) Conscience & ego-ideal (superego) N Unconscious, conscious, pre-conscious N Two drives: o Sexual instinctual drive o Aggressive instinctual drive N Internalized prohibitions (protection of guilt) N Compromise formation (compromise bw id and superego) N Manifest content of a dream N Latent content N Free association o Method of analysis where patient reports all thoughts feelings N Defence Mechanisms (active when id & superego conflict) o Repression o Reaction formation o Projection o Sublimation o Rationalization o Conversion (aka. Hysteria) N Narcissism N [Z9Z Z}ZoZ}}Z}Loo}KL o Seeking pleasure @ diff stages from diff parts of the body (erogenous zones) o Fixation (whole or partial) 1) Oral stage (babies) id a. Over under gratification fixation 2) Anal stage (2 yrs) ego a. Harsh (compulsiveness) vs. mild toilet training (preferred) b. Anal retentive: very neat, meticulous, obsessive c. Anal Expulsive: Sarcastic, hostile, untidy 3) Phallic stage (3 yrs) superego a. Complexes (opposite sex parent) b. Oedipus complex & penis envy (Electra complex) i. Resolved by identification w same sex parent ii. Learn right & wrong as interpreted by parents 4) Latency period 5) Genital stage N Carl Jung - ]Z2l[ZKZZ]Z}LZo] o Libido positive creative force personal growth o Ego = conscious and contained ideas, memories, emotions (aware) o Collective unconscious: memories inherited from ancestors o Archetypes: inherited & universal thought forms (shape our perception) o Shadow: opposite to feeling you actually hold N Alfred Adler J felt Freud over-emphasized sexuality o Striving for superiority (major motivational force) Inferiority shape personality Social interest (innate desire to contribute to society) N Karen Horney- ]Z2]Z[ZZ22ZZ]}L o 3 basic orientations to deal w basic anxiety Self efficiency - moving towards os Self expansiveness J moving against os Self resignation J moving away from os N Erik Erikson o Emphasized social aspects of personality vs. biological o Growth occurs throughout life N Melanie Klein o Object- relations theory: adult personalities reflect relationships indv. Makes w os as infant N Humanistic approach o Self-actualization N Abraham Maslow (self-realization) o Human motivation J hierarchy of needs Physiological needs Safety needs Attachment needs Esteem needs
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