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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

CHAPTER 10 According to Chomsky, newly formed sentences are represented in the brain in terms of their meaning, which he called their deep structure. Developmental dyslexia appears to be caused by abnormal development of parts of the left hemisphere. Hansel has difficulty reading words with irregular spelling (such as yacht). She has no difficulty reading pronounceable non-words. Hansel likely has surface dyslexia A specific deficit in reading ability that is caused by brain damage occurring after a person has already learned how to read is called acquired dyslexia The two-word stage of language acquisition involves children combining words creatively. A unique string of phonemes that an infant makes is called a protoword Ian and Michaela have a pet bird named Butters and a pet cat named Truffles. Michaela tells Ian that she saw Truffles at daycare today...and Butters in the park. Michaela is probably a child who is making an overextension error The branch of psychology that studies verbal behavior is called psycholinguistics Context important in speech perception Content words express meaning Agrammatism often results from damage to Broca's area. People who suffer from autotopagnosia cannot name their body parts. In reading, the average duration of a fixation is about 250 milliseconds After an injury to her brain, Celeste cannot read nearly as well as she once could. Celeste appears to be suffering from a form of dyslexia known as acquired dyslexia.leste has an acquired dyslexia because she already knew how to read before she sustained brain damage. Developmental dyslexia becomes apparent when people are first learning how to read. During acquisition of language, infants become less sensitive to speech sounds in languages other than their own an abundance of function words is NOT a characteristic of child-directed speech Nate, who is about three years old, calls his family pet, Molly, a "dog." (Molly is actually a dog.) However, all other dogs he calls "kitties." This is an example of both an overextension and an underextension Most adults tend to correct children's speech by saying the sentence or phrase correctly We do not perceive speech as a string of individual words. Instead, we perceive speech to be a stream of speech punctuated by pauses and marked by high and low pitches. The manner in which words are organized in a sentence indicates to the listener who did what to whom. For example, in the sentence, "The girl winked at her friend," we immediately recognize it was the girl who behaved (winked) with respect to her friend. Word order of sentence is important. The sentences "The girl patted her dog on his head." and "The dog was patted on his head by the girl." have different surface structure and same deep structure. Pure word deafness is caused by damage to Wernicke's area Abstract content words are probably BEST understood as adjectives that modify less abstract content words The babbling found in young children reflects the adult speech that they hear the most successful attempts at teaching non-human primates symbolic communication are those that involve a close working relationship between the animal and the person. In these cases, the initial attempts at communication involve nonverbal communication. Syntax refers to the rules of language, rules such as those that determine the correct ordering of words within a sentence "Raoul went to school." and "Jack went to jail." While the words in both sentences are essentially organized in the same order (surface structure), the sentences convey different meanings (deep structure). Cannot detect prosody when reading a sentence Even though this sentence contains two seemingly different thoughts, it makes sense to us. This is assumed to be due to our use of scripts when interpreting language. Broca's aphasia is a problem creating well-formed meaningful speech. In fact, this patient sounds like they have something called "pure word deafness" whereby someone's hearing is fine, but they just cannot understand words Wernickes area CHAPTER 11 Analytic intelligence: plan and execute tasks Creative intelligence: ability to deal with novel situations and solve familiar problems automatically Practical intelligence involves being able to adapt to a new environment Fluid intelligence is defined by relatively culture-free tasks, while crystallized intelligence is defined by tasks that require people to have acquired information and knowledge from their culture. (the information we gather from our experiences) Spearman's g factor in his two-factor theory of intelligence is comprised of which three principles? Apprehension of experience, education of correlates, education of relations the validity of an intelligence test is assessed by the strength of the correlation between test scores and criterion If you were looking at a child's deviation IQ, you would be using Stanford-Binet Scale developed after 1960. Norms are data that is used to compare an individual's score to his or her peers' Why is the problem of bias so rampant in intelligence tests? Tests may include items that are foreign to certain groups. The correlation of IQ scores among identical twins is more than double that of siblings reared apart. In later life, a person's intelligence is jointly determined by environmental factors and brain structure. Determination and heritability not the same things the word chair is an example of a basic-level concept but the word high chair is an example of a subordinate concept education of reasoning is NOT one of the cognitive principles that are involved in Spearman's "g" factor level of crystallized intelligence that one possesses depends heavily on one's learning experiences (which the depends heavily on one's personal expe
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