textbook ch14

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John Bassili

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Chapter 14 – personality Personality: a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking prevailing across time and situations that differentiates one person from another Trait theories • Hippocrates first explanation of traits o Had to do with predominance of the 4 humours in the body Chloric – increase of yellow biltempered and irritable Melancholic – increase of black bilegloomy and pessimistic Phlematic – increase of phlem sluggish and calm Sanguine – increase of blood cheerful and passionate • Personality types: different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences o The idea that people can be assigned to distinct categories is rejected today by most investigators • Personality trait: an enduring personality characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behaviour in a variety of situations • Gordon Allport o Looked for words in a dictionary that described personality o Found about 18 000 o Believe people with particular trait react similarly across situations because feel unique sense of similarity that guides feelings • Catell: sixteen personality factors o Did factor analysis on allport and found 16 different personality traits • Eysenck: three factors o Did further factor analysis 3 main factors extroversion(opposite: introversion),neuroticism (opposite: emotional stability), psychoticism (opposite: self control) Extroversion: the tendency to seek the company of other people, to be spontaneous and to engage in conversation and other social behaviours with them Introversion: the tendency to avoid the company of other people to be inhibited and cautious, shyness Neuroticism: the tendency to be anxious, worried and full of guilt Emotional stability: the tendency to be relaxed and at peacewith oneself Psychoticism: the tendency to be aggressive, egocentric and antisocial. www.notesolution.com Self control: the tendency to be kind, considerate and obedient of laws. • The 5 factor model o A theory stating that personality is composed of 5 primary dimensions, neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and consciousness o Neuroticism, extraversion , and openness personality inventory (NEO-PI-R): the instrument used to measure the elements described in the five factor model Psychobiological approach • Heritability of personality traits o Many studies have shown some personality traits are highly heritable o Identical twins are more likely to like each other than fraternal (concordance) o Zuckerman: heritability of extroversion 70%, psychoticism 59%, neuroticism 48% o If family environment played a significant part, twins raised together should be more similar than if they were raised apart WERE NOT! 2 possible explanations – family environments could have been more similar for identical twins or could have been perceived as different for fraternal twins o Brain mechanisms involved in personality o Zuckerman: personality dimensions of extraversion determined by neural systems o Kagan: shyness could have a biological basis The social learning approach • The idea that both consequences of behaviour and an individual’s beliefs about those consequences determine behaviour. • Expectancy: the belief that a certain consequence will follow a certain action • Observative learning: learning through observing the kinds of consequences others (called models) experience as a result of their behaviour o Learn vicariously • Bandura: self efficacy o Reciprocal determination: the idea that behaviour, environment and person www.notesolution.com variables interact to determine personality Everything affects everything o Self efficacy: people beliefs about how well or how badly they will perform • Seligman & schuluman: found people who find something positive in less desirable circumstances are generally more successful than those who view it negatively • Walter Michel: personality learned through interaction with environment o Role of cognition o Michel argues that individual different in cognition or person variables account for differences in personality o Personal variables: individual differences in cognition, which according to Michel, include competencies encoding strategies, personal constructs, expectancies, subjective values, self regulatory systems and plans. Competencies: different skills, capacities perform ones that were reinforced earlier Encoding strategies and personal constructs: way we processdepends on how were perceive the situation Expectancies: what we expect affects behaviour Subjective values: the degree to which we value certain reinforcers over others influence our behaviours Self regulatory systems: self punishment and self reinforcement • Julien rotter: locus of control o Locus of control: an individual’s belief that the consequences of his or her actions are controlled by internal personal variables or by external environmental variables • Social learning theorists put more emphasis on environmental traits o Michel says party for funeral, vs. birthday situation is important in determining extroversion The psychodynamic approach • Psychodynamic: a term used to describe the Freudian notion that the mind is in a state of conflict among instincts, reason and conscience • Sigmund Freud: ID EGO SUPEREGO o Instinctual drives are triggered by events in a person’s life o To understands a person’s personality, must tap into unconscious o Personality determined by conscious and unconscious powers o www.notesolution.com Structure of mind: Unconscious: mental events which we are not aware Conscious: mental events which we are aware Pre-conscious: mental events that may become conscious through effort o ID: the unconscious reservoir of the libido, the psychic energy that fuels instincts and psychic processes o Libido: an insistent instinctual force that is unresponsive to the demands of reality o Pleasure principle: the rule that the ID obeys: obtai
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