tb ch16

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John Bassili

Psychology chapter 16 – lifestyle, stress and health Cultural evolution: lifestyle choices and consequences • cultural evolution: the adaptive change of culture to recurrent environmental pressures o product of human intellect and physical capacity • lifestyle: the aggregate behaviour of a person; the way in which a person leads his or her own life o Cultural evolution resulted in much higher standard of living but also put threats to health and safety. Personal responsibility to avoid threat o Many unhealthy choices are a result of reinforcing consequences in the short run but long term damaging consequences Healthy and unhealthy lifestyles • Healthy enhances an individual’s well being, unhealthy diminishes. • Nutrition o Should choosehigh fibre low fat diet o Avoid coronary heart disease(CHD) • Physical fitness o Ancestors probably better physical shape than us today Most people today lead sedentary lives o Physical lowers risk of death due to variety of causes o Aerobic exercise: physical activity that expends considerable energy increase blood flow and respiration and thereby stimulates and strengthens heart and lungs and increases body’s efficient use of oxygen • Cigarette smoking o 47000 deaths from smoking o Passive smoking o www.notesolution.com Bad for kids and pets o Why do people do it? peer pressure, favourable impression of one who smokes o Canada has an anti smoking thing • Drinking alcoholic beverages o Psychological effects of alcohol – euphoria o Neuronal activity of the brain becomes suppressed, reduces inhibitory controls on behaviour, moderate to heavy amounts people become more relaxed and outgoing, impaired motor coordination o Drinking and alcoholism may be genetic • Sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS o Safe sex practices will prevent this o Ask Unhealthy lifestyles are preventable: self control • Problem getting people to suitable healthy behaviours for unhealthy ones and make positive lifestyle changes • Short term rewards versus long term rewards Stress and health • Stress: a pattern of physiological, behavioural and cognitive responses to stimuli (real or imagined) that are perceived as endangering ones well being • Stressors: the stimuli that are perceived as endangering ones well being o Product of natural selection o Come in many forms o Stress is a biological response that is experienced as an emotion Heart rate increases breathing becomes deeper and faster, digestion stops, secrete adrenaline • Selye’s general adaptation syndrome: o Body’s adaptation to chronic exposure to severe stressors, 3 stages Alarm stage: arousal of automatic nervous system Resistance: the stage entered with continued exposure to the stimulus Exhaustion: continuous stage of exposure • Stress used to only be a short term event, adaptation evolve
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