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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

Psychology chapter 18 – The treatment of mental disorders Mental disorders and psychotherapy • Earliest attempt to treat mental disorders – trephining o Trephining: a surgical procedure in which a hole is made in the skull of a living person o People believed that people with mental disorders were in possession of evil spirits o People began to believe that they were ill and sent them to asylums – extraordinarily inhumane o Phillippe Phinel – thought kind treatment of patients would benefit them • Development of psychotherapy: o Jene Memser – women with hysteria able to cure through hypnosis o Eclectic approach: a form of therapy in which the therapist uses whatever method he or she feels will work best for a particular client at a particular time Insight therapies • Assume people are essentially normal but learn maladaptive thought patterns and emotions • Behaviour is a symptom of an underlying problem • Psychoanalysis: o Psychoanalysis: form of therapy aimed at giving client insight into his or her own unconscious motivations and impulses o In early stages of therapy, clients problems are difficult to identify, because the analysis and client are unaware of the underlying unconscious conflicts o Interpret clues about origins of intrapsychic conflict given by client o Client unconsciously evokes one or more defence mechanisms o Psychoanalytic techniques: Free association: client is encouraged to speak freely, without censoring possibly embarrassing or socially unacceptable thoughts or ideas Minimising authoritative contact Dreams are crucial – underlying meaning of dream content Manifest and latent content o Resistance: a development during therapy in which the client becomes defensive, unconsciously attempting to halt further insight Good step o Transference: the processby which a client begins to project powerful 1 attitudes and emotions onto the therapist Essential to the successof therapy o Countertransferernce: process by which the therapist projects his or her emotions on the client This is NOT good o Modern psychotherapy puts less emphasis on the sexual factors of psychoanalysis – egohas control over the psych • Humanistic therapy o Humanistic therapy: a form of therapy focusing on the persons unique potential for personal growth and self – actualization o Carl Rogers Client centered therapy: form of therapy in which the client is allowed to decide what to talk about without strong direction and judgement from the therapist Unconditional positive regard: according to Rogers, therapeutic expression that a clients worth as a human being is not dependant on anything that he or she does, says, feels or thinks o Gestalt therapy Gestalt theory: a form of therapy emphasizing the unity of mind and body by teaching the client to “get in touch” with unconscious bodily sensations and emotional feelings Confrontational – get client to deal with problems o Psychoanalytic therapy takes lots of time o Insight therapy is not suitable for serious problems o Humanistic is more affordable and less time consuming Behaviour and cognitive behaviour therapies • Therapies based on classical conditioning o Systematic desensitization Systematic desensitization: a method of treatment in which the client is trained to relax in the presence of increasingly fearful stimuli • Remove unpleasant emotional response Implosion therapy: therapy attempts to rid people of fears by arousing them intensely until responses diminish through habituation and they learn that nothing bad happens o Aversion therapy Aversion therapy: treatment in which the client is trained to respond negatively to a neutral stimulus that has been paired with an aversive stimulus. • Therapies based on operant conditioning o Behaviour modification o Altering maladaptive behaviour by rearranging the contingencies between behaviour and its consequences o Reinforcement of adaptive behaviours is a powerful method of behavioural change 2 Token economies: a program where a token is given to a patient for desirable goods or special privileges • Tokens become conditioned reinforcers • Require cooperation Modeling: learn through other people • Better progress if you have a model to follow Assertiveness therapies – helps clients who feel frustrated at not being able to speak up and defend their rights Extinction of maladaptive behaviours: behaviour is eliminated by removing previously available reinforcers: • 2 potential problems – extinction burst, and it maintains undesirable behaviour Punishment of maladaptive behaviours – not as goo
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