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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

PSYA02 NOTES Chapter 10  Psycholinguistics: a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behavior  Auditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselves  Using MRI scans, Berlin found that some regions of the brain responded more when people heard human vocalizations than when they heard only natural sounds – large difference were located in the temporal lobe, on the auditory cortex  Phoneme: the minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language (p-i-n)  Voice on set time: delay between the initial sound of a consonant and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords (delay of voicing for pa is about 0.06 second)  Phonemic discriminations begin with auditory processing of the sensory differences, occurs in both hemispheres; regions of the left auditory cortex seem to specialize in recognizing special aspects of speech  Phoneme combined to form morpheme: the smallest unit of language (fast-est)  All languages have syntax, grammar  Syntax; synthesis comes from the Greek world syntassein “to put together”  Syntactical rule: a grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases, clauses and sentences; learned implicitly  Function word: a preposition, article or other word that conveys little of the meaning of a sentence but is important in specifying its grammatical structure  Content word: a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb that conveys meaning  Syntactical cues are signaled by word order, word class, function and content words, affixes, word meanings and prosody  Affix: a sound or group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word (prefix) or its end (suffix) eg. Dropp-ed, bright-ly  Semantics: the meanings and the study of the meanins represented by words  Prosody: the use of changes in intonation and emphasis to convey meaning in speech besides that specified by the particular words; an important means of communication of emotion; use of stress, rhythm and changes in speech  Deep structure: the essential meaning of a sentence, without regard to the grammatical features (surface structure) of the sentence that are needed to express it in words  Surface structure: the grammatical features of a sentence  Scripts: the characteristics (events, rules, and so on) that are typical of a particular situation; assists with the comprehension of verbal discourse (I learned a lot about the bars in town yesterday, do you have an aspirin?)  Broca’s aphasia: severe difficulty in articulating words – slow, laborious, non fluent speech, especially function words, caused by damage that includes Broca’s area, a region of the frontal cortex on the left (speech dominant) side of the brain  Agrammatism: a language disturbance; difficulty in the production and comprehension of grammatical features, such as proper use of function words, word endings, and word order. Often seen in cases of Broca’s aphasia  Wernicke suggested that Broca’s area contains motor memories – memories of the sequences that are needed to articulate words  Wernicke’s area: a region of the auditory association cortex located in the upper part of the left temporal lobe; involved in the recognition of spoken words  Wernicke’s aphasia: a disorder caused by damage to the left temporal and parietal cortex, including Wernicke’s area; characterized by deficits in the perception of speech and by the production of fluent but rather meaningless speech, few content words are used, receptive aphasia  Unlike Broca’s aphasia, speech associated the Wernicke’s aphasia is fluent and unlaboured – the person does not strain to articulate words and appear to be searching for them  Pure word deafness: the ability to hear, to speak and usually to write, without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech; caused by bilateral temporal lobe damage, restricted to Wernicke’s area  Isolation aphasia: a language disturbance that includes an inability to comprehend speech or to produce meaningful speech, accompanied by the ability to repeat speech and to learn new sequences of words; caused by brain damage to the left temporal/parietal cortex that spares Wernicke’s area  Autopanomia: “poor naming of one’s own topography” – damage to other regions of the brain can disrupt particular categories of meaning in speech  Meaning is a joint function of syntax and semantics  Fixation: a brief interval between saccadic eye movements during which the eye does not move; visual information is gathered during this time (average fixation lasts 250 milliseconds)  Phonetic reading: reading by decoding the phonetic significance of the letter strings; “sound reading”  Whole-word reading: reading by recognizing a word as a whole; “sight reading”; faster than phonetic decoding  Surface Dyslexia: a reading disorder in which people can read words phonetically but have difficulty reading irregularly spelled words by the whole word method  Phonological Dyslexia: a reading disorder in which people can read familiar words but have difficulty reading unfamiliar words or pronounceable non-words because they cannot sound out the words  Dyslexia: “faulty reading” all caused by damage to the left parietal lobe or left temporal lobe  Patients with transcortical sensory aphasia can repeat what is said to them even though they show no signs of understanding what they hear or say  Direct dyslexia: a language disorder caused by brain damage in which people can read words aloud without understanding them  Semantic priming: a facilitating effect on the recognition of words having meanings related to a word that was presented previously  Most linguists have concluded that the ability to learn language is innate  Linguists have proposed that a child’s brain contains a “language acquisition device” which embodies rules of “universal grammar”  Children learning a language make hypotheses about the grammatical rules they need to follow. These hypotheses have confirmed or disconfirmed by the speech they hear  An innate language acquisition device guides children’s hypothesis formation. Because of this, there are sentences they will never utter  Language acquisition device makes reinforcement unnecessary; the device provides the motivation for the child to learn a language  Critical time period for learning a language. Works best during childhood; after childhood, languages are difficult to learn  Most researchers have supposed that alteration occurs after children begin to learn the meanings of words at around 10 to 12 months of age  First words of a child – soft like a in father or consonants such as p and b  Nasality – converts consonants p or b into m  Protowords: unique strings of phonemes that serve word-like functions  Child directed speech: the speech of an adult directed toward a child; differs in important features from adult-directed speech and tends to facilitate learning of language by children  Inflection: a change in the form of a word (usually by adding a suffix) to denote a grammatical feature such as tense or number  Content words are used first by babies, then verbs  Irregular verbs are used first because they get used more often than regular ones  Overgeneralization errors: errors in language that occur when learners produce incorrect words or statements based on other rules of language  Overextension: the use of a word to denote a larger class of items than is appropriate; for example, referring to the moon as a ball  Underextension: the use of a word to denote a smaller class of items than is appropriate; for example, referring only to one particular animal as a dog  Caregivers often correct children’s overextensions. Most effective type of instruction occurs when an adult provides the correct label and points out the features that distinguish the object from the one with which the child has confused it Chapter 11  Intelligence: general term used to refer to a person’s ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behavior in an adaptive way  Differential approach: an approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in people’s knowledge and abilities to solve problems (Jean Piaget)  Developmental approach: an approach to the study of intelligence based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world  Information processing approach: an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the types of skills people use to think and solve problems  Spearman: g factor: a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks, includes apprehension of experience, education of relations and education of correlates  G factor: 3 qualitative principles of cognition (apprehension of experience  to perceive and understand, eduction of relations  ability to perceive relation between lawyer and client, and eduction of correlates  ability to apply one rule inferred from one case to another  S factor: a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task  Factor analysis: statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests  Correlations among various tests of intellectual ability usually range from .30 to .70  Person’s score depends on two things: the person’s specific ability (s) and g factor or general reasoning ability  Factor A: General Intelligence, Factor B: maintaining information in short term memory and manipulating numbers, Factor C: spatial ability  Factor analysis provides clue about the nature of intelligence but cannot provide a theory of intelligence  Fluid intelligence: ability to solve problems ; Crystallized intelligence: defined by tasks that require people to have acquired information from their culture  If 2 people have the same experiences, the one with the greater fluid intelligence will develop the greater crystallized intelligence. If a person with a high fluid intelligence exposed to an intellectually impoverished environment, they will develop a poor crystallized intelligence  Successful intelligence: according to Sternberg, ability to effectively analyze and mange personal strengths and weaknesses  Triarchic (“ruled by three”)  Analytic intelligence: according to Sternberg, mental mechanisms people use to plan and execute tasks; includes metacomponents, performance components and knowledge acquisition components  Creative intelligence: according to Sternberg, ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to solve problems automatically that have been encountered previously  Practical intelligence: according to Sternberg, intelligence that reflects the behaviors that were subject to natural selection: adaptation-fitting oneself into one’s environment by developing useful skills and behaviors- selection-finding one’s own niche in the environment; and shaping- changing the environment  Gardner concludes that there are 8 intelligences(logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic,visual- spatial, naturalist, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, intrapersonal, interpersonal), with a potential 9 , existential intelligence  Syllogism: logical construction that contains a major premise, minor premise, and a conclusion. The major and minor premises are assumed to be true, and the truth of the conclusion is to be evaluated by deductive reasoning  Concept of intelligence is determined by culture  Sir Francis Galton, most important early investigator of individual differences in ability  Binet Simon Scale: intelligence test developed by Binet and Simon in 1905, precursor of the Standford-Binet scale; were arranged in order of difficulty  Norm: data concerning comparison groups that permit the score of an individual to be assessed relative to his or her peers  Modern intelligence tests began in France with the work of Albert Binet  Mental age: a measure of a person’s intellectual development; the level of intellectual development that could be expected for an average child of a particular age  Stanford-Binet scale: an intelligence test that consists of various tasks grouped according to mental age; provides the standard measure of the intelligence quotient  Intelligence quotient (IQ): a simplified single measure of general intelligence; by definition, the ratio of a person’s mental age to his or her chronological age, multiplied by 100; often derived by other formulas; IQ= MA/CA x 100 (mental age/chronological age)  Ratio IQ: a formula for computing the intelligence quotient; mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100  Deviation IQ: a procedure for computing the intelligence quotient; compares a child’s score with those received by other children of the same chronological age  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): an intelligence test for adults devised by Wechsler; contains subtests divided into the categories of verbal and performance – most popular individually administered adult intelligence test because it tests verbal and performance abilities separately  Reliability is assessed by the correlation between the scores people receive on the same measurement on two different occasions; perfect reliability is 1.0  Accepted reliability of a modern test of intellectual ability should be at least .85  Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC): an intelligence test for children devised by Wechsler; similar in form to WAIS  Self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when people’s expectations about what will happen lead them to act in ways that make the expectations come true, even if the expectations were unfounded in the first place  Binet’s original purpose: identify students who require special instruction  Mental retardation: mental development that is substantially below normal; often caused by some form of brain damage or abnormal brain development  Profound mental retardation is applied when a person has an IQ score below the range of 20 – very rare  Severe mental retardation is used when a person’s IQ is between 20-34  Moderate mental retardation: IQ score between 35-54  About 90% of people with mental retardation are classified as having mild mental retardation (between 55-70)  Earliest instance of ability testing carried out by the Chinese  Heritability: statistical measure that expresses the proportion of the observed variability in a trait within a population that is a direct result of genetic variability. Value of this measure from 0 – 1.0.  Donald Hebb set the stage for our current understanding of how genetics and environment contribute to intelligence  Intelligence A: hereditary, biological potential for intellectual development  Intelligence B: reveals effects of biological development coupled with environmental influences on functioning; what we measure with IQ tests  Most important components of intelligence is thinking: categorizing, reasoning and solving problems  Concepts: a category of objects or situations that share common attributes  Formal concepts: a category of objects or situations defined by listening their common essential characteristics, as dictionary definitions do  Collins suggested that such concepts are organized hierarchically in semantic memory  Natural concept: a category of objects or situations based on people’s perceptions and interactions with things in the world  Exemplar: memory of particular examples of objects or situations that are used as the basis of classifying objects or situations into concepts  Basic-level concepts: concept that makes important distinctions between different categories (chair, apple); cognitive economy  Superordinate concept: concept that refers to collections of basic-level concepts (furniture and fruit)  Subordinate concept: concept that refers to types of items within a basic level category (lawn chair and Granny smith apple)  Deductive reasoning: inferring specific instances from general principles or rules  Mental model: a mental construction based on physical reality that is used to solve problems of logical deduction; construction of a possibility  Inductive reasoning: inferring general principles or rules from specific facts  Failure to seek or use information that would be provided by a control group has been called ignoring the base rate  Initial state  goal state, using operators to get to intermediate stage  Algorithm: a procedure that consists of a series of steps that will solve a specific type of problem  Heuristic: a general rule that guides decision making; what to pay attention to, what to ignore, what strategy to take  Means-end analysis: a general heuristic method of problem solving that involves looking for differences between the current state and the goal state and seeking ways to reduce the differences Chapter 12  Prenatal period: the nine months between conception and birth. This period is divided into three developmental stages: the zygotic, embryonic, and the fetal  Zygote stage: zygote divdes many times and the internal organs begin to form  Embryonic stage: beginning at about two weeks and ending about eight weeks after conception, during which the heart begins to beat, the brain starts to function and most of the major body structures begin to form  Teratogens: substances, agents, and events that can cause birth defects  X chromosome inactivation is one example of an epigenetic modification, a modification of cell inheritance that is not due to alterations of the DNA sequence itself  Androgens: the primary class of sex hormones in males. The most important androgen is testosterone  Tetracycline, common antibiotic, can cause irregularities in the bones and discolouration of teeth  Cocaine: dramatic effects, increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight and smaller than normal head circumference  Cigarette smoking: reduced oxygen levels to fetus  At birth, the infant’s most important movements are reflexes-automa
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