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Ch10 detailed chapter notes i used these to study and did well on the exams

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

CHAPTER 10Language is the most complex ability humans possessOur use of language is a behaviourSpoken words are highly organized patterns of motor activityWhen theyre randomly uttered under influence of Tourettes they mean nothing more than other simple behaviours like ticsWhen organized into language they can communicate the complex steps of a surgical procedureCommunication requires organizationAfter sexual behaviour communication is probably most important of all human social behavioursSpeaking and writing are social behaviours learned from other people and used to communicated with themWe use language as a tool in our remembering and thinkingWe encode information in memory verballyWriting notes and consulting them laterSpeaking listening reading and writing are behavioursLinguists study rules of language and what we do when we speak or writePsycholinguisticsbranch of psychology devoted to study of verbal behaviourConcerned with human cognition more than the rules that describe languageThey are interested in how children learn to speak from their interactions with adultsHow language is acquired used and how verbal abilities interact with other cognitive abilitiesSpeech and ComprehensionPerception of SpeechWhen we speak we produce series of sounds in continuous streamPunctuated by pauses and modulated by stress and changes in pitchSpeech does not come to us as a series of individual words like writingMust extract words from stream of speechRecognition of Speech SoundsAuditory system allows us to recognize speech soundsHuman vocalizations contain enough information that we can recognize individuals from the sounds in their speechWe can filter out nonspeech sounds cough chuckleSounds of speech vary according to sounds that precede and follow themAccents stress placed on syllablesAuditory system recognizes patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselvesSome regions of the brain respond more when people hear human vocalizations and nonvocalizations than when they hear only natural soundsLarge difference in temporal lobe on the auditory cortexWhen it comes to analyzing the detailed information of speech the left hemisphere plays a larger role than the rightPhonemeselements of speech smallest units of sound that contribute to the meaning of a spoken wordWe discriminate among phonemesVoiceonset timedelay between initial sound of a consonant ex Puffing sound of p and the onset of vibration of the vocal cordsDistinction between voiced and unvoiced consonants006 second delay in voicing that occurs when you say pa compared to baRegions of left auditory cortex seem to specialize in recognizing special aspects of speechPET scans used to identify these areasPlayed recordings of either natural speech speech that was computerdistorted and unintelligible but
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