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Ch11 detailed chapter notes i used these to study and did well on the exams

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John Bassili

Chapter 11Intelligence is made up of a variety of skills that must be coordinated and the results of their use must be synthesizedMost psychologists define intelligence as a persons ability to learn and remember information to recognize concepts and their relations and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive wayAny definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgmentsThree dominant approaches to studying intelligenceDifferential approachdevelopment of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples abilities to solve problemsSkills that are important in the classroomEx Explain proverbs define words solve arithmetic problems etcDevelopmental approachstudying the ways in which children learn to perceive manipulate and think about the worldJean PiagetInformation processing approachthe types of skills people use to think and solve various types of problemsTheories of IntelligenceIs intelligence a global trait or is it a composite of separate independent abilitiesThe fact that IQ intelligence quotient tests yield a single score doesnt mean that intelligence is a single general characteristicOne point of viewsome intellectual abilities are completely independent of one anotherEx Someone is good at spatial reasoning but poor at solving verbal analogiesThree theories of intelligence twofactor theory information processing theory neuropsychological theorySpearmans TwoFactor TheoryProposed that persons performance on test of intellectual ability determined by two factorsg factor general factor and s factor factor specific to a particular testG factor comprises three qualitative principles of cognitionapprehension of experience eduction of relations and eduction of correlatesEductionthe process of drawing or bringing out figuring out from given factsSolving analogies requires all three principlesEx LawyerclientdoctorIf we administer 10 different tests of intellectual abilities to a group of people and each test measures a separate independent abilityScores these people make on any one test will be unrelated tot heir scores on any other correlations will be about zeroIf tests measure abilities that are different manifestations of a single trait scores will be perfectly relatedScores will be perfectly relatedclose to 10A general factor g accounts for the moderate correlations among different tests of abilityA persons score on a particular test depends on two things the persons specific ability s on the particular test and his or her level of the g factorEvidence from Factor AnalysisPearson and Spearman developed this statistical procedureIdentifies underlying commonalities among groups of testCommon factors would be abilities that affect peoples performance on more than one testtables in lectureFactor loadingslike correlation coefficients express degree to which a particular test is related to a particular factorFactor analysis helps generate clues about nature of intelligence it cant provide a theory of intelligenceNames given to factors up to investigator and include a degree of subjective judgment
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