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Ch12 detailed chapter notes i used these to study and did well on the exams

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John Bassili

Chapter 12Lifespan developmental psychology studies the processes and the patterns of change that occur within an individual over a life courseSimilarities and differences among people as they develop and change when and how these occurMajor developmental periods prenatal development infancy and childhood adolescence and adulthood and old agePrenatal DevelopmentNine months between conception and birthThree stageszygote embryo foetusZygote stageLasts two weeksSingle new cell that is formed at conception divides many times internal organs begin to formNear end of this stage a third layer of cells appears that will eventually develop into muscles and circulatory and excretory systemsEmbryonic stageTwo weeks to eight weeks after conceptionDevelopment at rapid paceHeart beats brain and spinal cord functioning body structures formingFeatures of human body hands fingers etcReflexive reactions to stimulationEmbryo is most susceptible to chemicals that can cause birth defectsTeratogenterasmalformationany substance agent or event that can cause birth defectsBeginning of sexual developmentGonads become either ovaries or testesIf testes present they secrete class of sex hormones known as androgens androsman gennanproduce ex TestosteroneDevelopment of female sex organs occurs naturally doesnt need to be stimulated by hormoneFetal stageLasts about 7 monthsStarts with appearance of bone cells ends with birthSome movement especially kickingSleeping and waking regularlyHeartbeat can be heard through stethoscopeth7 month critical because if its born prematurely it has fair chance of survivingThreats to Normal Prenatal DevelopmentMothers diet is most important factor in fetus developmentMalnourishment can cause abnormal development and intellectual deficitsteratogens cause birth defectsSome antibiotics taken in large quantities for a long time can produce defects ex Tetracycline can cause irregularities in bones and discoloration of teethSmokingcauses reduced oxygen levels miscarriages lowbirth weight babies increased chance of premature birth more births by CsectionCocaineincreased risk of premature birth low birth weight smaller than normal head circumference problems in neural development arousal attention born addicted withdrawal symptomsAloholpre and postnatal growth deficits deformations eyes mouth low brain mass and other brain and nervous system abnormalities and heart deformationthis is all known as fetal alcohol syndromeFAS children fall behind physically and intellectuallyRead interim summary p 378Physical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and ChildhoodInfantup to two years oldMotor DevelopmentBirthimportant movements are reflexesautomatic movements in response to stimuliRooting turning head toward touch at side of mouthSucking baby will suck when something is put in its mouthSwallowing when milk or any other liquid enters mouth baby will make swallowing movementsAll important to survivalNormal motor development follows pattern dictated by maturation of muscles and nervous systemMaturationstable change in thought behaviour or physical growth due to the aging process not experienceDevelopment of motor skillstwo ingredients maturation of nervous system and practicePerceptual DevelopmentSensesnoises cause startling light causes squinting discomfort causes cryingHeld firmly and tilted backwardsbaby will flail arms and legs and stiffensense of balanceFacial expressions indicate taste preferencesPreference for odour of their mothers breastcan tell the difference between mother and othersSmell of mothers lactationsmell of other lactating womensmell of nonlactating womenRecognize and prefer mothers voicepreexposure in the wombPerception of PatternsVisual perceptual abilities of infants can be studied by observing their eye movements with an eyetracking device as visual stimuli are showed to themOne month old doesnt look at inside of a figure gaze trapped by edgesTwo month old scans across border to investigate interior of a figureBabies at one or two months arent perceiving complete shapesScanning strategy limited to fixation on a few parts of objectThree monthsclear signs of pattern recognitionPerception of SpaceAbility to perceive threedimensional spaceVisual cliffplatform containing checkerboard patternMost babies dont venture out onto the glass and act as if afraid of fallingRetinal disparity is a cue that contributes to depth perceptionPoints on objects that are different distances from the viewer fall on slightly different points of the two retinasPerception of depth occurs when two images are fused through visual processingsolid appearance stereopsisCritical periodspecific time during which certain experiences must occur if an organism is to develop normallyConsists of a continuous interaction between physical maturation and environmental stimulationBabies with crossed eyes dont experience depth perception because the same points on the two retinas are receiving the same informationsurgery before three years of age will allow for stereopsis to developRead interim summary p381Cognitive Development In ChildhoodCognitive capacities develop as children growThe Importance of a Responsive EnvironmentCognitive developmentthe process by which infants get to known things about themselves and their worldFocus on environmental factorsLearning that events in the environment can be dependent on ones own behaviourenvironments in which infants behaviour has tangible effects is the most effective in promoting cognitive developmentExperiments with babies pillows head movement and suspended mobilesInfant control of stimuli in their environment
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