Psychology.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Winter

Description
Psychology Intelligence Chapter 10 1/9/2013 10:14:00 AM  Williams syndrome (retardation) – absence of 20 genes on chromosome 7, impairs general cognitive abilities, leaves them with a talent for music and language Intelligence: the ability to direct ones thinking, adapt to one‟s circumstances and learn from ones experiences How Can Intelligence Be Measured Henry Goddard  administered an intelligence test and thought that “stupid” individuals be segregated and not allowed to procreate  such tests were first developed to help underprivileged students excel in school THE INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT  Psychologist Alfred Binet and physician Theodore Simon were called upon to develop a test that would help predict the success of a child in the classroom  The test they developed tested a child‟s “natural intelligence” (a child‟s natural aptitude for learning independent of the child‟s prior educational achievement)  William stern  mental level should be thought as a child‟s mental age and the best way to determine whether a child was developing normally was to examine the child‟s mental age to the child‟s physical age  Lewis Terman  ratio IQ: a statistic obtained by dividing a persons mental age by the persons physical age and then multiplying the quotient by 100  not a very good way to test IQ (anomalies) because a 6 year old performs like a 12 year old the IQ would be 200 however a 30 year old who performs like a 60 year old would have the IQ of 200 Deviation IQ: a statistic obtained by dividing a persons test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying the quotient by 100  a person who scored the same as the average person his or her age would have a deviation IQ of 100 good a 30 year old cannot be a genius simply by getting older bad does not allow comparisons between different ages  solve this problem ratio IQ (children), deviation IQ (adult) THE LOGIC OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING  intelligence tests measure the ability to answer questions and perform tasks  most widely used test today is the Stanford-Binet and WAIS which require respondents to answer a variety of questions and solve a variety of problems THE CONSEQUENCES OF INTELLIGENCE  intelligence test scores predict a persons academic performance, job performance, health, wealth, attitudes, basic cognitive abilities Is Intelligence One Ability or Many A HIERARCHY OF ABILITIES Charles Spearman  invented a technique known as factor analysis: a statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying factors Underlying meaning: if intelligence is a single, general ability then there should be a very strong positive correlation between peoples performances on all kinds of tests - tested his theory on children, his 2 finding:  most measures were positively correlated  although differences measures were positively correlated they were not perfectly correlated - combing these two finding he came up with the two factor theory of intelligence: every task requires a combination of a general ability (g) and skills that are specific to the tasks (s)  participants overall performance Louis Thurstone disagreed – primary mental abilities (perceptual ability, verbal ability, numerical ability) these abilities were neither general (g e.g. athleticism) or specific (s dribbling)  in essence he believed that just as we have game called baseball and basketball but no game called athletics so we have abilities such as verbal ability and perceptual ability but no general ability called intelligence  summing up spearman and thurstone is the confirmatory factor analysis: correlations between scores on different mental ability tests are best described by a 3-level hierarchy: general factor (spearman g), group factors (thurstone) and specific factors (spearman s) The Middle Level Abilities THE DATA-BASED APPROACH (8 middle level abilities) John Carroll  8 independent middle-level abilities: memory, learning, visual perception, auditory perception, retrieval ability, cognitive speediness, processing speed, crystalized intelligence, fluid intelligence Fluid intelligence (processing e.g. abstract problems): the ability to see abstract relationships and draw logical inferences Crystallized intelligence (information e.g. factual information): the ability to retain and use knowledge that was acquired through experience THE THEORY-BASED APPRAOCH Good: conclusions are based on heard evidence Bad: incapable of discovering any middle-level ability that intelligence tests didn‟t already measure (imagination/ creativity) Robert Sternberg  believed that there are middle-level abilities to which data-based approach is blind Analytic intelligence: identify, define problems and find strategies to solve them Creative intelligence: generate solutions that other people do not Practical intelligence: apply/ implement these solutions in everyday settings Howard Gardner  observed ordinary people, people with brain damage, prodigies: people with normal intelligence who have an extraordinary ability, savants: people of low intelligence who have an extraordinary ability leading him to conclude that there are 8 distinct kinds of intelligence: 1. linguistic 2. logical-mathematical 3. spatial 4. musical 5. bodily-kinesthetic 6. interpersonal 7. intrapersonal, 8. naturalistic  believes that intelligence tests measure only the 1 three because those are the ones valued by western culture John Mayer and Peter Salovey  emotional intelligence: the ability to reason about emotions and to use emotions to enhance reasoning Where Does Intelligence Come From Nihil est in intellectu quod non prius fuerit in sensu There is nothing in the intellect that was not first in the senses Everything we know and think is the product of our experience with the world GENETIC INFLUENCES ON INTELLIGENCE STUDYING RELATIVES Fraternal twins (dizygotic twins): twins who develop from two different eggs that were fertilized by 2 different sperm Identical twins (monozygotic twins): twins who develop from the splitting of a single egg that was fertilized by a single sperm  identical twins who are raised apart have more similar intelligence scores that do fraternal twins who are raised together  meaning that people who share all their genes have similar intelligence scores regardless of whether they share their environments (genes play an important role in determining intelligence) HERITABILITY Heritability coefficient (h^2): statistic that describes the proportion of the difference between peoples scores that can be explained by differences in their genes  tells us why people in a particular group differ from one another, changes depending on the particular group of people we measure shared environment: those environmental factors that are experiences by all relevant members of a household (same diet) nonshared environment: those environment factors that are not experiences by all relevant members of a household (different friends) ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON INTELLIGENCE Relative intelligence: stable over time (those who are most intelligent at age 11 are likely to be most intelligent at age 80) Absolute intelligence: changes over time (increase between adolescence and middle age and decline thereafter)  decrease as you grow older, increase across generations  Flynn Effect (James Fynn) accidental discovery that the average intelligence test score is rising (.3% or 15 IQ points every year)  genes may determine the range in which a persons IQ is likely to fall, environments determine the exact point in that range at which the persons IQ will fall ECONOMICS (socioeconomic status SES)  wealthier people are more intelligent because: 1. NUTRITION AND MEDICAL CARE (biological effect) 2. INTELLECTUALLY STIMULATING ENVIRONMENT (cultural effects)  SES has a powerful influence on intelligence, education has a moderate one Are Some Groups More Intelligent Than Others  some groups outscore others on intelligence tests because a) testing situations impair the performance of some groups more than others b) less healthful and stimulating environments  no compelling evidence that between group differences in intelligence are due to genetic differences Improving Intelligence Cognitive enhancers: drugs that produce improvements in the psychological processes that underlie intelligent behavior (Adderall, Ritalin)  gifted children well adjusted just like their peers, no more successful than moderately intelligent children  gifted children are gifted in a single domain and tend to be passionately interested in that domain Psychology Language and Thought Chapter 9 1/9/2013 10:14:00 AM LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION: FROM RULES TO MEANING Language: system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning Grammar: rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages. Distinguishing Features of the Human Language 1. complex structure: infinite number of novel sentences 2. use words to refer to intangible things: unicorn, democracy 3. use language to name, categorize and describe things The Complex Structure of Human Language Basic Characteristics Phonemes: smallest units of sound that are recognizable as speech rather than as random noise  e.g. b and p are classified as separate phonemes b/c they differ in the way that they are produced by the human speaker Phonological rules: indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds  e.g. ts is acceptable in German but not in English Morphemes: smallest meaningful units of language  the p sound at the beginning of pat is a speech sound but carries no meaning but the morpheme pat is an element of speech that carries meaning Grammar Rules Morphological Rules: indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words  Content morphemes – things, events (cat, take)  Function morphemes – grammatical functions, tying sentences together, indicating time (and, or, but, when) - content and functions morphemes can be combines and recombined to form an infinite number of new sentences governed by syntax Syntactical Rules: indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences e.g. „dogs bark‟ is a sentence where as „the big gray dog over by the building‟ is not Meaning: Deep Structure vs. Surface Structure Deep Structure: meaning of a sentence Surface Structure: how a sentence is worded e.g. „the dog chased the cat‟ and „the cat was chased by the dog‟ mean the same thing but have different surface structures Case Study: A tape recorder was played to volunteers and they were asked to reiterate the sentences they had heard. The volunteers frequently confused sentences they heard with sentences that had the same deep structure but a different surface structure: „he struck john on the shoulder‟ was mistaken for „john was struck on the shoulder by him‟ showing that the meaning of a sentence is more memorable than the wording. Characteristics of Language Development 1. children learn language very quickly 2. children make few errors while learning to speak b/c of overgeneralizing grammatical rules 3. children‟s passive mastery of language develops faster than their active mastery  at every stage of language development, children understand language better than they speak it Language Development Distinguishing Speech Sounds - Infants can distinguish among all of the contrasting sounds that occur in all human languages but after the first 6 months of life they lose this ability and can only distinguish among the contrasting sounds in the language they hear being spoken around them. - In English r and l are two distinct sounds however in Japanese these distinct sounds are not distinguishable and fall within the same phoneme  4 and 6 months children begin to babble speech sounds Case Study: researchers recorded a tape saying „la, la, la‟ or „ra, ra, ra.‟ They rigged a pacifier so that whenever an infant sucked on it the tape player would play “la, la, la.‟ The babies were happy when they heard this and kept sucking on the pacifier but after a while lost interest. At the point experimenters switched the tape so that the voice said „ra, ra, ra. ‟ the Japanese infants began sucking vigorously showing they could hear the difference. Language Milestones Fast Mapping: children map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure  enabling them to learn at a rapid pace Telegraphic Speech: devoid of function morphemes and consist mostly of content words  more milk, throw ball The Emergence of Grammatical Rules Very young children memorize the particular sounds that express what they want to communicate. But as children acquire the grammatical rules of their language they tend to overgeneralize. If a child overgeneralizes the rule that past tense is indicated by –ed then run becomes runned or even ranned not ran  showing that language acquisition is not a matter of imitating adult speech Why are studies of internationally adopted children especially useful? Language acquisition in preschool adopted children showed the same orderly progression of milestones that characterizes infants. Results indicate that some of the key milestones of language development depend on experience with English. The main message from this study is that observed shifts in early language development reflect specific characteristics of language learning rather than general limitations of cognitive development Theories of Language Development Behaviorist - reinforce those that are grammatical, ignore or Explanations punishing those that are ungrammatical - theory cannon account for many fundamental characteristics of language development  parents do not spend time teaching children to speak grammatically  children generate many more grammatical sentences that they hear  errors children make are due to overgeneralizations of grammatical rules - if we learned language through imitation as behaviorists theorized infants would only distinguish the phonemes they‟d actually heard Nativist - humans have a particular ability for language that is Explanations separate from general intelligence Nativist Theory: language development is best explained as an innate, biological capacity - the human brain is equipped with a language acquisition device: a collections of processes that facilitate language learning Genetic Dysphasia: a syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure of language despite having otherwise normal intelligence  carol is cry in the church 1. normal children learn the grammatical rules of human language with ease in part b/c they are wired to do so (predisposed to acquire language) explains why newborn infants can make contrasts among phonemes that occur in all human languages 2. language can be acquired only during a specific period of development  theories explain do not explain how language develops only why Interactionist - although infants are born with an innate ability to Explanations acquire language, social interactions play a crucial role in language - parents tailor their verbal interactions with children simplifying the language acquisition process - group of deaf children in Nicaragua created their own sign language, complete with grammatical rules, without receiving formal instruction. Their acts of creation nicely illustrates the interplay of nativism (the predisposition to use language) and experience (growing up in an insulated deaf culture) Language Development and the Brain - Broca‟s area and Wernicke‟s area are the language centers of the brain - Damage to them results in a serious condition called aphasia: difficulty in producing or comprehending language Broca‟s Area - left frontal cortex - involved in the productions of the sequential patterns in vocal and sign language - people with Broca‟s aphasia understand language relatively well but have increasing comprehension difficulty as grammatical structures get more complex, real problem is with their speech production consist mostly of content morphemes  ah, Monday, uh, Casey park. Two, uh, friends, and, uh, 30 minutes Wernicke‟s - left temporal cortex Areas - involved in language comprehension (whether spoken or signed) - people with Wernicke‟s aphasia can produce grammatical speech but it tends to be meaningless, difficulty comprehending language  feel very well. In other words I used to be able to work cigarettes. I don't know how. Things I couldn't hear from are here The Role the Right Cerebral Hemisphere Plays in Language Processing 1. shows some capacity for processing meaning 2. patients with damage to the right hemisphere sometimes have subtle problems with language comprehension 3. neuroimaging has shown right hemisphere activation during language tasks 4. children who have had their entire left hemisphere removed can recover many of their language abilities Can Other Species Learn Human Language Limitations 1. size of the vocabularies they acquire 2. types of words they can master 3. complexity of grammar Language and Thought: How are they Related Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis: language shapes the nature of thought Concepts and Categories: How we Think Concept: a mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related objects, events or other stimuli  concepts are fundamental to our ability to think and make sense of the world Psychological Theories of Concepts and Categories 3 theories seek to explain how people perform acts of categorization Family Resemblance Theory Features that appear to be characteristic of category members but man not be posses by every member Prototype Theory Psychological categories those that we form naturally are best described as organizes around a prototype: best/most typical member of the category  a prototype possesses most/all of the most characteristic features of the category  according to the prototype theory is your prototypical theory is your prototypical bird is a robin then a canary is a better example of a bird that an ostrich is Exemplar Theory We make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category  this theory does a better job that prototype theory in accounting for certain aspects of categorization, especially in that we recall not only what a prototypical dog looks like but also what specific dogs look like Concepts, Categories and the Brain 1. Left hemisphere: primarily involved in forming prototypes 2. Right hemisphere: recognizes exemplars 3. Visual Cortex: involved in forming prototypes 4. Pre-frontal Cortex & Basal Ganglia: learning exemplars Suggesting that…  Exemplar based learning involves analysis and decision making (prefrontal cortex)  Prototype formation is a more holistic process involving image processing (visual cortex) Category-Specific Deficit: inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category though the ability to recognize objects outside the category is undisturbed Case Study: 16 year old Adam exhibited category-specific deficits despite suffering his stroke when he was 1 day old suggesting that the brain is prewired to organize perceptual and sensory inputs into broad based categories like living/nonliving - deficits usually occur when there is damage in the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex 1. front left temporal lobe – difficulty identifying humans 2. lower left temporal lobe – difficulty identifying animals 3. region where the temporal lobe meets the occipital/parietal lobes – impairs ability to retrieve names of tools - category specific brain organization is innately determined Decision Making: Rational and Otherwise The Rational Ideal Rational Choice Theory: we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happened, judging the value of the outcome and then multiplying the two  this theory does not describe decision making in our everyday lives very well The Irrational Reality Judging Frequencies and Probabilities  good at estimating frequency bad at performing tasks that require us to think in terms of probabilities Availability Bias: items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently
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