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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Winter

Description
Language 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM - Share our mind Deep Structure meaning Surface Structurehow we convince it Dogs live in the now We live in the past Deerleave the tragic scene, but replay again and again Consciousnesstransforming one learning experience into repeated experience Take one learning experience into many repeated experience Communicationcan learn without actual experience Animal X language doesn’t X consciousness Language = enhancement Left hemispherelanguage Baby can tell btw language/ non-language Born sensitive in language usage But will lose some ability as they grow up in their culture There are 2 main pattern of diagnosing comorbidity: 1) Internalizing: the core vulnerability which is common to unipolar mood, somatization, anxiety disorder 2) Externalizing: common factor of ASPD, substance use disorder Decision 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM Availability: Heuristicrough rule We feel better when we have availability to control Conjunction: Stereotype distorted they are badhelp us Representativeness: If u gave a description to a people, something of description are representative, fit with hoe we think about them it assume how we thing about them When we make a decision, we don’t seem to like to compute the probability Choice Blindness: -2 picturechoice the attractive one -experimenter switch the picture and gave them the one they don’t choose -but people seems didn’t notice, and try to said that why the person is attractive Measuring intelligence 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM Lec4 Individuals differences: Differences btw ppl A lot of psychology try to understand the average of people Psychology intelligence Social intelligence: most societyit’s worth for ppl to give a bunch of $ to educate the youth make a strong country Formal text (France) In class, we are mixing the children’s intelligence The less intelligence students are holding back the high intelligence student Galton: How quickly people would react to a thing Reacting is related to your internal intelligence We have different wire speed Assume people who can process information faster would be more intelligence Binet: Papering pencil test Try to capture as many as human ability to create test IQ:100 SD:16 A lot of these test have word problem Gave white and back IQ test which is written in English words which are commonly used in white society white kids do better than back (cause they don’t understand the question) when change the wording back do better than white non-linguisticexplain to somebody what to do but no specific word  avoid the bias Lec5 Different racial group have different intelligence Factor analysis: Ask somebody to do a test and try to ask them to solve problem - The rage of the problems have to different in different rate 7 factors: Verbal comprehension: ability to understand spoken words Verbal fluency: ability to produce spoken words Number: math skill Special Visualization: Memory: how effective they can use their memories Reasoning: wording memory Perceptual speed: how quickly you can response to a thing Fluid intelligence: reflect the fact of the environment, of schooling education Education approach can bring your intelligence higher Higher educationeasier to handle problem Development- The Early Year 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM Longitudinal Approaches - A individual/ a group of individual - We study them at various points and times as they age - Keep hold of lot of confound - Hard to do it scientifically Cross-sectional study - get a group of specific group of child (Eg. 2 year-old/ 6 year-old) - see differences in abilities across them - 6 year-old will be brought in a different world than 2 year-old - something critical can change across generation Zygotic Stage – first 2 weeks of egg developing Embryonic Stage – 2-8 weeks Start as female: if there’s enough testosteroneboy Fetus stage – last 7 months Bones form, baby grows Abortion Once you are human, you have the right not to be killed When the heartbeat begins Many people don’t know they are pregnant Cognitive Development 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM The child learn how to manipulate the world Jean Piaget: Maybe baby interact and view the world differently What you can do to them; what you can’t Child forming a concept to catencounter new thingassimilation (try to fit it into a category that they know before Accommodation: sgunlike a catchild touchspread themknowing its different that cattrying to create a new category The Senorimotor Period (~2yrs old): most of the thoughts are going to focus on what it sees, feels, test, and moving around the world; getting mobio, getting the muscle of the body working right, and then learn about the world through its senses The Preoperational Period (2-7): starting to knowing to world; Eg. 3 pizzabig brother toke 2 leaving sister 1not fairtoke her pizza and cut ir into to 2, then she’s happy. Eg. mother cover their face to childdisappear Object permanent: learning you can’t see it , things still exist You don’t want child touch somethingput it awaychild look aroundif she don’t find it, it doesn’t exist. Get to know the basic idea of the world preoccupy learning about language, symbols; how to manipulate symbols Ego-sentries bias-the world about them X empathy The Period of Concrete Operations (7-11): empathy; to feel what they are feeling (homeless) Give them a problem (concrete)figure out Social Development/ Parenting 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM Human are extremely social beings There will be other carrying adult human will infect nurture this child in a social way, right from birth The child needs attention, the mother give attention Give up parentingdiegenes would not continue Material instinct: when it’s their child, they’ll do everything for them (woman), decide to protect the infant After the child was bornskin and skin touch Eye to eye contact Smiling (~5 week) Crying (every time when the baby cry, cause their have needschildren learn to cry when they want attention, mother learn not to pick them up every time) Monkey: 1) provide food but no comfort 2) provide comfort but no food (when there’s any fearful stimulus, he go to the cloth mother for comfortprefer comfort) Even the cloth mother sometimes do some nasty thing to the monkey, he still returnseems like the nasty thing past Still face (poker face) try to get back child feels the stress, produce –ve emotion Mother invests time to play with children Diagnose parent-child relationship Stranger anxiety: Separation anxiety: Secure attachment: Avoidance attachment: after the mother return, the baby didn’t go back to their mother have trouble with peer Parent tend to dismiss the child Deal with stress on their own Undependable stress sources: tend to have trouble in relationship, don’t know what to do When stranger’s there, even a secure baby go back to grasp his mother Anxiety-Resistant: preoccupy Too much comfort is not a good thing (farmer, crops) Permissive-negligent (parents don’t care them so much) - disrespect - self-center - disobedience - immature - rebellion authoritative: have rule behind thembreak the rules, listen to children’s reason Permissive parent: like a friend, never know how to obey (no rule) No sense to behave in certain way Parents still love them Personality 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM Types vs Trait Types: put somebody in a box, all thing in the box has same trait Trait: mix of certain things; the dominate portion of human determine personality Personality: depend on how much the liquid you have in the body Great portion determine your personality blood: passionate; romantic lover lymph: sad Allport: categorize them 3 traits: cardinal traits central traits secondary trait: attitude (eg. Impatient waiting in line) show extreme personality Cattell’s 16 traits (job: certain job are more suitable for certain ppl) Psychoticism: do wherever they do ( are you the kind of person follow rules/ break rules) The Dark Triad: (self-center very love themselves) Narcissim Psychopath (not caring about feelings of other ppl) Machiavelli anism (self-center approach, getting what they want) Psychopathy: Rule behavior Lec10: The Psychodynamic View: Fred: Placebo effect: Instinct(ID): Reason(EGO) Consciousness(Superego) ID: completely below our consciousness, “I want sth I want it now.”; primary source of energy The Pleasure Principle: The desire to obtain immediate gratification in whatever form it may take. Super Ego: who we want to be; want to be the beat ppl Ego-Ideal: The internalized notion of what society values in a person … what it means to be “good”, “liked” or “appreciated”. Ego: try to make everybody happy Reality principal: attempts to find ways to satisfy the desires of the Id without invoking guilt from the Super-ego. A guyblindX physical problem This guy saw sth that the conscious mind doesn’t want to deal with Dream Analysis: When a person was dreaming, tell you a little about the real thing X the whole picture; sth related to it Manifest content: what you actually saw in a dream Latent content: what the dream actually represented Oral fixated: Anally fixated: worry about detail; want it to be clear, appropriate The Oedipus Complex: Boys forms close to mother; sees father as a competitor in sexual way The Electra Complex: Girls forms close to father; fear X penis; jealousy The Self and the Role of Context (L11) 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM The Rouge Test: suggests that most human infants recognize their reflection as themselves at about a year and a half Looking glass self: how people think who you are StealmirrorX When you put mirrors in the roomcheat less Stanford prison experiment: the powerful of words and environment Guard: create the horrible situation Prisoner: experience a horrible situation Why? Experiment, randomly; people all come from the same When ppl wear mask, they behave differently. We have multiple personality The Social Animal (L12) 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM Human rely on each other Try to be unique, expect in the group Conformity Milgram:  blindly follow the leader (German)  to what step human will follow order  how punishment affect learning o unethnicalpsychological prejudice:  ingroup  outgroup  ingroup bias  scapegoat theory: when things going wrongblame outgroup Eliminate prejudiceworking with the other groupbuild sth together From stereotype Attitude Formation and Reformation (L13) Central Traits: Some traits may be more important that others in terms of organizing our impressions of others (e.g., warm/cold vs. polite blunt). The Primacy Effect: The order with which we encounter traits matters, with earlier traits having the largest effect How do other people behave: Most people behave like this (high consensus): behave due to situation) Low consensus: Distinctiveness: High: that student’s problem Low: prof’s problem: common behavior Homosexuality: feel non-homophobicsee the real sceneaffective (unlike what cognitive think) How do you shape other people’s belief Central route: give ppl a rational reason to like somethingppl have to have mobility and want to be attention Peripheral route: Emotionaffective level When we watching ourselves to do sth idiot, we reformate the way how we think Eg. Tim vs Starbuscost moretell people it worth Attraction: (L14) K : a few child R: many child and it on their own Mothers don’t have to wait until the first child grow up to have another baby a mate bring food and safe place Man did not just go for every woman and hit Attracted to specific individual hipeasy child birthborn healthy like people with bigger pupilinterested in you (positive reinforcement) pheromones: releasing hormone to attract male perfume: tend to attract the same sexfemale choose the smell which female like Living in Groups (L15) Diffusion of responsibility: if just you and me, it’s your responsibility to let me die; in group, responsibility diffuse, we often assume that someone in the group has better solution. Assistance Requires … > Noticing and correctly interpreting the situation > Assuming responsibility for helping (diffusion of responsibility) > Considering costs of intervention and concluding they are not too high > Then implementing the chosen course of action Situation affect people’s decision making Social Facilitation – the enhancement of a person’s performance due to the presence of other people Social Loafing – when the “others present” are co-workers, rather than observers, social loafing is common, assume somebody in the group do better than you, diffuse responsibility Keep the group sizetoo bigmany people are loafing We accept to be treated in certain way until we see someone are treated better Mental Disorder (L16) 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM When patient are treated in humanity way, they are less crazy Abnormal psychology is associated with:  An inability to hold a job  Marital or family dysfunction  Problematic interactions with others Medical Perspective: Some of the disorders are deal with biological problem  The notion that many disorders reflect chemical imbalances  The notion that drugs can effectively be used to counter these  The quest to find genetic links to mental diseases Behavioral Perspective: CBT: teach people haw to think differently Humanist Perspective:  Help a client get out what’s wrong and try to fix it  How to get where you are to where you want to be Social-Cultural Perspective  Cultural biases-how they define mental illness and how they react to them  Certain culture has certain mental illness higher Biopsychosocial Perspective:  Many of us were born with certain diseases Labeling Why?? Find the cause and give them treatment Labeling should not apply any understanding  Relives people of responsibility for their problems  Can falsely suggest clusters of symptoms  Can result in negative stereotypes (once you get labeled, you are never get unlabeled) for the mentally ill  Can suggest understanding that is not really there DSM-IV-TR  Axis 1 – Major Clinical Syndromes  Axis 2 – Personality Disorders  Axis 3 – Physical Disorders  Axis 4 – Severity of Recent Stress  Axis 5 – Global Assessment of Functioning (L17) Mental illness – the degree of maladaptive Somatoform Disorder: people feel sick, but no physical biological illness  Somatization Disorder: o Complain at least 13 symptoms o Sometimes change their life  Start wearing a mask o Visit doctor frequently  Conversion Disorder: o Not faking  Panic attack o Amygdala – focus on dangerget us out of danger/ prepare to fight back o Trigger amygdala by no reason (heart beat fast, sweating…)  Escape and unseen danger, but there’s no danger  Phobia: o By watching something o Social phobiathey may have panic attackfear to go outno safe place to protect them  Obsessive/Compulsive Disorder o Fear germstouch somethingcan’t stop thinking about germsstart washing hand out of control  Dissociative Amnesia o Loss self identity o No memory of anything  Dissociative Identity Disorder o Child being abused o One personality is weakaccept abusecreate a new that is more strong Women are more likely to have anxiety disorderunable to change to world… (L18) Depression Socially anxiety Once you above poor level, money wont make any happiness Bipolar disorder (manic depression):  depressive most of the time  Bipolar I: men really extreme o Episodes of mania (“nonstop orgasm”) either by themselves or, more commonly, mixed with periods of major depression  Bipolar II: Periods of major depression mixed with occasion less intense periods of mania (hypomanic episodes)  The highest rate of suicide  Athlete: positive thinking  Depresseddepressed of futurehigh external locus of control (they themselves are not control anything) Cognitive:  I am worthless  Blame their situation on stable personal inadequaciesfeel helpless and hopeless with respect to things changing Psychological:  Biochemical Factors – lower levels of norepinephrine and serotonin (make you happy)  Zeitgebers: time setting: the sun comeshappy; winnermuch cloudsad life changing stressor seasonal affective disorders  Sleep Cycle  Pregnancy: after u have a baby, locus control change o Life is change (L19)Schizophrenia (split mind) Primary symptom: hearing voice in your head X visual hallucinationauditorycause confusion  Delusions of Persecution o Feeling everyone is going to hurt you o Problem distinguish reality from fantasy (can’t distinguish reality from their imagination)  Delusions of Control o Control you, tell you to do something o Feeling like they are doing right (angel/ god tell them to do)  Delusions of Grandeur o You are somebody very important Symptoms: distortions of thought, perception and emotion; bizarre behaviour; and social withdrawal Negative symptoms: speech disorganize, lack emotion/ least in an appropriation, low energy, inability to keep friends (social inapt) Think people following them They are someone important Tend to be more talent Residual: Type the follows one of the others and is marked by only negative symptoms Reactive: Type marked by rapid onset and brief duration, caused by stresses Process: Type marked by gradual onset and poor prognosis (symptoms get worse and worse) Drugtend to lose the positive symptomthey don’t like thatwhen you put the medication on themthey feel like they are stupidnormal feels weak Beautiful lifeX sexual interest In hospital, medicationX symptomsrelease themstop taking drugsymptoms reappear Antipsychotic drug (chlorpromazine): block DA receptors  Long term usage of phenothiazines often develops Parkinsonian-like symptoms (tardive dyskinesia) Amphetamine psychosis resembles schizophrenia  Amphetamine blocks DA transporters thereby raising DA levels  Amphetamine exacerbates schizophrenia Cocainerely on cocaineproduce less dopamine Frontal lobe, limbic system (seeing danger) Family: Double Bind: encourage child to do sthbut then gives “mixed signals” by not supporting them when they actually dowhen they do it, they act like a punish wayX rewarded when they so do what their parents encouraged to do Expressed Emotion – Expressions of criticism, hostility and emotional overinvolvement by family memberslead to relapse Trouble holding down a job, family Family memberthink they are dangerwant them in jail Why danger?? You don’t know what’s going on in their head (L20) Personality Disorder Personality Disorder: Abnormalities of behavior impair their social/ function Psychopath (anti-social disorder)  Extreme mental disorder  Don’t want to be treated, don’t think they have problem  Violent  Lack of human empathy  Theory of mind: all of us create model of others  They are outgoing, charming  Continue telling people lie  Shock-Wrong-Cash Experiment: every time when they get wrong, give them a shock (but they seem not get to learn); every time they are right, give them cashseem happy (learned)  Punishment doesn’t bother them  Have felt empathy from others; get too much punishment Borderline Personality Disorder  Abandon in life earlier  Chang their goals, personality…  Suicide, cut themselves Schizoid Personality Disorder  Want to be alone  Don’t want to meet anybody Substance-Related Disorders  Substance-Use Disorders: Addition  Substance-induced Disorders: Less extreme, but still related to health, occupant/social problems Treatment 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM History, and Insight Therapies (21) Make a hole in your skullhope the spirit would leave Lost humanityare treated as an animal Insanitymental illness (you are the victim) Get bettergive them some work Give them help, confident Hypnosis Freud: (insight therapy): Assumes the people have learned maladaptive thought patterns and emotions, which are revealed in maladaptive behaviours.  Behaviours reflective of some deeper psychological issue and when patient understands the true cause (i.e., gainst insight) the maladaptive behaviours will subside o Try to mining different concept o Care about the emotion (does “uncle” mean something else) o Sex-aggression o Transfer: client have some feeling, and transfer to the therapist (hate his fatherwhen talk to therapistmad, angry) o Therapist can counteract the transfer: the therapist will act like the client’s father o Gain the insight: remember what the uncle did o Challenge uncle: get release in this mental tension o Psychoanalysis o Free association, dreams, o other projective tests o Resistance / Transference/ o Counter-Transference Humanistic Therapy:  Run into big trouble btw where you are and what you want to be  Client-Centred Therapy: the clients do the work o The therapist try to push the client to think o The client explore the possibilities (options) o Insightbecause the person still speaking o Forward thinking (much positive) o Generally non-directive in a manner meant to help the “client” essentially help themselves o therapists provides support, encouragement, and acts to help the client achieve the smallest level of incongruence (the distance between who they are and who they would like to be)  Gestalt Therapy: Emphasizes the unity of the body and mind o Really focus on emotion o The empty chair technique: imagine your mother is sitting on the chairask them what she want to tell her mother o Ask people to understand their emotion better o Defand you own situation Cost much $ It seems/ gets better, never recover Most will said they feel better, force themselves to feel betterotherwise why would I do this? Limitations: to benefit from insight therapies a client must be intelligent, articulate, motivated (and rich) enough to spend multiple days a week for maybe years or more (especially psychoanalysis).  Have willing to do it week after week  Have to be able to take your emotion and put it into word Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Therapies(22) Different therapy are suited for different specific disorder Systematic Desensitization – a technique designed to eliminate the unpleasant emotional response by the feared object or situation and replace it with an incompatible one … relaxation  Relaxation  Teach people how to relax o Learn to relax o Associate the feeling with a trigger o Practice using the trigger  Hierarchy of Fears o Create Hierarchy o Go through it slowly, using trigger o One cannot progress until they can remain relaxed on the previous step  Imagine in more and more anxiety situationshow control of relaxation You can be in a situation which they are no horrible thing happened In Vivo Exposure: Forcing clients to directly face their fears until their fears extinguish … very stressful, though not dangerous  Eg. snake crawling all over the patientnothing happenthe patient may go over the fear  Eg. smokingput a people in a room where there are many ciaragettesmoke every oneget very sick Imaginal Exposure: Same idea, except it relies on graphic imagery rather in vivo experiences (virtual reality) Aversion Therapy: Pairing a noxious (aversive) stimulus with some undesired behaviour  Some usually feel power to be violentmake them sick when they are being violent Reinforcement of Adaptive Behaviours: If an incompatible behaviour exists, it can be positively reinforced which causes the elimination of the unwanted behaviour  When a child come nakedpeople laughthe child think it’s funnytell people not to react when the child is nakedwhen he come with full dresspeople admire himpositive reinforce Token Economies: Using tokens to reinforce desired outcomes (remember over-justification effect?) Modeling: Having a therapist model adaptive behaviour … leads to “vicarious extinction” Assertiveness Therapy: A process for developing coping skills especially for people who feel they are being walked on by others … opposes anxiety  Certiveness training Extinction: Removing positive reinforces that were present (e.g. tantrums) … notion of extinction burst  Child want thing in the grocery storelet them crydo it fluentlythe child know that crying doesn’t make them to get what they want  Extinction Birds: Before they give they take it to an other level Punishment: Following some undesired behaviour by an aversive stimulus … notion of covert sensitization  Your child is running on the bed longer than usuallya loud alarmlearn there are brotherly sensation  Shift the symptom around (23) If you wear a sad face, you start feeling sad Facial muscle can affect your emotion Drug: work in the short-term; reduce certain symptoms Serotonin: -ve emotion Antipsychotic Drugs: Chlorpromazine (Largactil/Thorazine) dramatically reduces the positive symptoms of Schizophrenia – not really enjoy losing delusion May still have –ve symptom, but not seem crazy anymore Apparently works by blocking dopamine receptors Long term use leads to tardive dyskinesia (lip smacking, drooling Long-term use: build up the dose – use more and more (L24) Cultural Evolution and life style 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM The environment we live changing, we adapt it but not completely adapt to itmaladaptive Civilizationenhance standard of living (often measured by materials: how many house you have – high standard is good) If you have a bad habit get u young, less likely pass on to next generation Every year, the next generation tend to live 4 years long than the pervious generation, expect now (obesity) Eg, eat lots of cheese burger, less likely to get a cancerbecause you’ll get heart attack before you get cancer Lots of disease are caused by eating animal More fat, more likely to have breast cancer (25) Stress Sympathetic Nervous system: keep us feeling stress in everyday life Isn’t engage long-term  Heart rate increases, blood pressure rises, blood sugar rises, blood flow directed to internal organs  Breathing deeper and faster  Digestion stops, perspiration increases  Adrenal glands secrete adrenalin  Fight and flight We can handle stress for a while  Control stress by how they think the event  Tiger: you feel stress, hunter: opportunity  Thoughts affecting the body (physiology) Ch. 11 Development 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM The study od continuity and change across the life span, and in the last century A womb with a View  Prenatal stage: ends with birth; begins 9 months earlier when about 200 million sperm swim from a woman’s vagina, through her uterus, onto her fallopian tubefind the correct fallopian tubeget closer to an egg to release digestive enzymes (erode the egg’s protective outer layerone of these sperm penetrate the coating, the egg quickly releases a chemical (seal the coating and keeps all the remaining sperm from enteringsperm sheds its tail and fertilizes the egg in ~12 hours, the nuclei of the sperm and the egg merge  Zygote: a fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and a egg o gender: 23 chromosomes contain genes (provide the blueprint foe all biological development  The egg is fertilized by a sperm that carries a Y chromosomemale  The egg is fertilized by a sperm that carries a X chromosomefemale o Germinal stage: 2-week period that begins at conceptionone-celled zygote begins to divide into 2 cells  Zygote migrates back down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the wall of the uterus  Male zygotes: unlikely to complete because male zygotes are unwilling to stop and ask for directions o Embryonic stage: a period that lasts from the second week until about the eighth week  The zygote continues to dividecell begin to differentiate (embryo)  Beating heart + other body parts (arms, legs)  Male: 1 X chromosome; 1 Y chromosome=> produce testosterone (masculinizes their reproductive organs  Female: 2 X chromosome X testosterone o Fetal stage: a period that lasts from the ninth week until birth (fetus)  Has a skeleton + muscles capable of movement  During last 3 monthssize of fetus increases rapidly develops a layer of insulating fat beneath its skin, digestive and respiratory systems mature  Brain cells begin to generate axons and dendrites  Myelination: the formation of a fatty sheath around the axon of a neuron (insulates a brain cell and prevents the leakage of neural signals that travel a long the axon) o Human brain (underdeveloped)  Bigger brainsbigger headsif adult sizebaby could not pass through mother’s birth canal  Brainability to adapt to a wide range of novel environments that differ I terms of climate, social structure…if born with fully developed brain, may/ may not meet the requirement  Underdeveloped brainshaped by unique social and physical environment into which we are bornallow us to be exceptionally adaptable Prenatal Environment:  Genesinfluences development from the moment of conception  Environmentinfluences development from the moment of birth o Womb influences development in a multitude o Placenta: links the bloodstreams of the mother + developing embryo/ fetus, permits the exchange of materialsshape the child’s food preferences o Teratogens: agents that damage the process of development (environment poison)  Fetal alcohol syndrome: a development disorder that systems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancybrain abnormalities, cognitive deficits  Tobacco: lower birth weights, more likely to have perceptual and attentional problems in childhood o Embryo is more vulnerable to teratogens than is the fetus; the central nervous system remain vulnerable throughout the entire prenatal period o Prenatal environment: rich with chemicals + information o Developing fetus can sense stimulation and learn from it o Fetus can hear mother’s heartbeat, the gastrointestinal sounds associated with her digestion and voice o Newborns such a nipple more vigorously when hearing mother’s voicemore familiar with the former than the lattercry in the melody of their mother’s native language Infancy: the stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 + 24 months Perceptual and motor development:  Newborns have limited range of vision  Habituation: the tendency for organisms to respond less intensely to a stimulus as the frequency of exposure to that stimulus increases  More attentive to social stimuli  Mimic facial expressions in their very first hour of life  Motor development: the emergence of the ability to execute physical actions o Born with a small set of reflexes: specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific sensory stimulation  Rooting reflex: the tendency for infants to move their mouths toward any object that touches their check  Sucking reflex: the tendency to such any object that enters their months  Allow infant to find mother’s nipplefeed  Cephalocaudal rule (top-to-bottom): the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feetinfant tend to gain control over their heads firstarmstrunklegs  Proximodistal rule (inside-to-outside): the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery learn to control the trunkselbows and knees hands and feet Cognitive development: the emergence of the ability to think and understand  Same agesame mistakesstop making these mistake at the same time  (Piaget) Sensorimotor stage: a stage of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancyuse their ability to sense and their ability to move to acquire information about the world o Begin to construct schemas (theories about or models of the way the world works)use it to predict/ control what will happen in novel situation o Assimilation: when infants apply their schemas in novel situations o Accommodation: Adjust/ revise their schemas in light of their new experiences o InfantX object permanence: the idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible infants act as though objects stop existing the moment they are out of sight  Childhood: the stage of development that begins at about 18-24 months and lasts until adolescence (begins btw 11-14 years)  Preoperational: the sage of development that begins at about 2 years ad ends at about 6 years o Learns about physical/ concrete 有形 objects o Acquires motor skills but doesn’t understand conservation (the notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object’s appearance) of physical properties; begin by thinking egocentrically but ends with basic understanding of other minds o Eg. Point out the row of eggs was longer than the row of cupsmore eggs than cups o Egocentrism: the failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers  Concrete operational: begins at ~6 years and ends at ~11 yeas o Child can think logically about physical objects and events and understands conservation of physical properties o Learns how various actions/ operations can affect/ transform those object o Understand quantity is a property of a set of concrete objects that doesn’t change when operation (spreading) alter the sets appearance  Centration: the tendency to focus on just one property of an object to the exclusion of all othersadults can consider several properties at once  Fail to think about reversibilitydon’t consider the fact that the operation that made the line of eggs longer could be reversed  Formal operational: ~11, last through adulthood o Child can think logically about abstract propositions and hypotheticals  Can solve nonphysical problems with similar ease  Even very young children tend to realize that others people have different desire  Theory of Mind: the idea that human behavior is guided by mental representation  Autism: have difficulty communicating with other people and making friendsfail to acquire a theory of mind o Have difficulty to understand the inner life if other people  Lev Vygosky: children do much the same thing o Culture – strong influence on cognitive development o Learn from others: social referencing (the ability to use another person’s reactions as information about the world); imitation (the ability to do what another person dose/ what another person meant to do)  When children’s sense provide unambiguous information about the world, they ignore what people them  When their senses leave them unsure about what to do, they readily accept parental advice Social development:  During first 6 months, begin to keep a mental tally of who responds most often and most promptlybegin to target their signals to the best responder/ primary caregiverbecome emotional center of the infant’s universe  Attachment: an emotional bond with a primary caregiver  Strange situation (Mary Ainsworth) : a behavioral test used to determine a child’s attachment style o Secure attachment: when the caregiver returninfants (distressed) go to her and are calmed by her proximately o Avoidant attachment: not distressed when their caregiver leaves the room; don’t acknowledge her returns o Ambivalent attachment: always distressed when their caregiver leaves the roomrebuff when she returns o Disorganized attachment: with no consistent pattern of responses when their caregiver leaves/ return  Working models: o Internal working model of relationships: a set of beliefs about the self, the primary caregiver , and the relationship btw them  Secure attachment: sure that their primary caregiver will respond when they feel insecure  Avoidant attachment: sure that their caregiver won’t respond  Ambivalent attachment: uncertain about whether she will respond or not (mother inconsistent response  Disorganized attachment: seem to be confused about their caregivers (abused)  Different children are born with different temperaments (characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity)  Mother’s sensitivity and responsiveness cause the infant’s attachment style  Attachment is correlated with later success only because both of these are caused by the same environment Moral development:  Shift from realism to relativism (Piaget): young children don’t believe that a bad action can be good even if everyone agreed to allow itbegin to realize some moral rules are invention, X discoveries can agree to adopt, change/abandon them entirely  Shift from prescription to principle: young children think moral rules as guidelines for specific actions in specific situationsrules are expressions of moral general principles = specific rules can be abandoned/ modified when they fail to uphold the general principle  From outcome to intention: young children judge the morality of an action by its outcome rather than by what the actor intended  Lawrence Kohlberg: moral reasoning proceeds through 3 stages o Preconventional stage: the morality of an action if primarily determined by its consequences for the actor immoralwhich one is punishedchoose the behavior with the least likelihood of punishment o Conventional stage: the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social ruleseveryone should uphold the generally accepted norms of their cultures, obey the laws of society, fulfill their civic duties and familial obligationsconcerned about spanking and prison sentences and the approval of others immoral action which one is condemned o Postconventional stage: the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core valuesright of life, liberty, pursuit of happiness  Moral intuitionist perspective: moral judgment are the consequences not the cause of emotional reactions o React emotionally to a small family of events hat are particularly relevant to reproduction and survival developed the distinction btw right and wrong as a way of labeling and explaining these emotional reactions Adolescence: begins with the onset of sexual maturity (11-14), lasts until beginning of adulthood (18-21)  Puberty: the bodily changes associated with sexual maturity  Primary sex characteristics: bodily structures that are directly involved in reproduction  Secondary sex characteristics: bodily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity but are not directly involved in reproduction  The age at which people become physically adult has decreased; the age at which they are prepared/ allowed take on adult responsibilities has increasedthe period btw childhood and adulthood become protracted o Adolescents are adults who have temporarily been denied a place in adult society  Sexuality: o Boys reach puberty later than their peersstressful immature boysless athletic and less “manly” o Girls reach puberty earlier-ve consequences ranging from distress to delinquencyX much time to develop the skills necessary to cope with adolescenceexpect them to act like adultsreceive attention from older maleslead them to unhealthy activities o Homosexual: the brains of gay people look like the brain of female  Parents and peer o Children define themselves almost entirely in terms of their relationships with parents and sibling; adolescence marks a shift in emphasis from family relation to peer relation  (Difficulty) children cannot choose their parents, but adolescence can choose their peer  as adolescents strive for greater autonomy, their parents naturally rebel o Spend increasing amount of time with opposite-sex peer; maintaining the amount of time spend with same-sex peer Adulthood:  Older people decline on test of working memory (the ability to hold information “in mind”) than long-term memory (the ability to retrieve information)  Decline on test of episodic memory (the ability to remember particular past events) than semantic memory (the ability to remember general information such as meanings of words)  Decline on retrieve test (the ability to “go find” information in memory) than on recognition test (the ability to decide whether information was encountered before)  (Young people) keep verbal information – left prefrontal cortex  Keep special information – right prefrontal cortex  Bilateral asymmetry isn’t seen among old people  Social emotional selectivity theory: o Younger adults are generally oriented toward the acquisition of the information that will be used to them in the futurehave long future  Activation of the amygdalapresent + unpleasant pictures o Older adults are general oriented toward information that brings emotional satisfaction in the presenthave shorter futureattending to and remembering positive information that serve them well in the moment  More poorly remember a series of unpleasant faces  Fewer negative emotions and more complex emotions  Sustain their positive emotional experiences and curtail their negative ones  Become more selective about their interaction partners, choosing to spend time with family and a few close friends  More children they have, the less satisfaction they report  Marital satisfaction: starts out highplummets at about the time that the children are in diapersrecoverplummets gain when the children are in adolescencereturns to its premarital levels only when children leave home  -ve impact of parenthood is stronger for women than menexperience role conflicts and restrictions of freedom CH.12 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM Ch.13 Social Psychology 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM The study of the causes and consequences of sociality Ultra-social: they form societies species in which large numbers of individuals divide labor and cooperate for mutual benefit 4 species: hymenoptera, termites 白蟻, naked mole rats, human (consist of genetically unrelated individuals Aggression: behavior whose purpose is to harm another  Frustration-aggression hypothesis: animals aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated  Biology and Aggression: o Maleassault, battery, murder o Aggression is strongly correlated with the presence of testosterone (high in young man than old man, in violent criminals than non-violent criminal)  Testosterone promote aggression by making people feel concerned with their status, and confident in their ability to prevail 勝利  Lowers people’s sensitivity to signs of treat o Elicit aggression in maleschallenge their status/ dominance o Men with unrealistically high self-esteem are more aggressivelikely to perceive other’s action as a challenge to their inflated sense of their own status o Women’s aggression tends to be more premeditated than impulsive; more likely to be focused on attaining/ protecting a resource than on their status  Aggress without provocation/ cause physical injury  More likely to aggress by causing social harm (eg. Ostracizing 排斥 others, spreading malicious 惡意 rumors  Culture and Aggression: o Watch violent TV show and playing violent video gamemore aggressive Cooperation: behavior by 2/ more individuals that leads to mutual benefit  Risk and Trust: o Minimize the risks:  Learn how to spot a cheater  Human beings have a uniquely powerful capacity to detect cheaters that surpasses their capacity for logical reasoning in general  Hypothesis-confirming bias o React strongly when you detect someone cheating  Ultimatum gamepeople rather get nothing than cheatingdislike unfair treatment  Groups and Favoritism: o Group: a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others  People tend to nice to each other o Prejudice: a positive/ negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership o Discrimination: a positive/ negative behavior toward another person based in their membership o Their members are +vely prejudice toward other members and tend to discriminate in their flavor o When groups try to make decisions they rarely do better than the beat member would have done alonegroups often do worsebecause they don’t fully capitalize on the expertise of their members o Tend to spend most of their time discussing unimportant information o People in groups sometimes do terrible things that none of them would do it alone  Reason: Deindividuation: when immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values  Personal valuewhen we are focused on ourselves  Diffusion of responsibility: individuals feel diminished responsibility for their action because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way People are typically more honest when they think that others are watching them  Altruism: benefits another without benefiting oneself o Common among animals o Kin selection: the process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives = cooperation with relatives isn’t really altruistic o Reciprocal altruism: behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future (merely extended for long periods of time) Selectivity:  Women tend to be more selective  Biological cause Attraction:  Situational factors o We select our romantic partners from the pool of people whom we have met, and the likelihood of meeting a potential partner naturally increases with proximity 接近 o Proximity provides motivation: people work especially hard to like those with whom they expect to have interaction o Mere exposure effect: the tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking  Physical factors o Different culture have different standards of beauty o Body shape: men – inverted triangle; female – hourglass o Symmetry: bilaterally symmetrical: left side (face) = right o Age: female – immature features; male – mature o Attractionnature’s way of telling us that we are in the presence of a person who has good genes and a propensity to be a good parent  Psychological factors o Inner qualities: point of view, attitudes, beliefs, values, ambitions, abilities, personality o We tend to like someone who like us  It’s easy to interact with people who are similar to us because we can instantly agree on a range of issues  When someone shares our attitudes and beliefs, we feel a bit confident that those attitudes and beliefs are correctwhen the accuracy of a person’s attitudes and beliefs is challenged, similarity becomes an even important determinant of their attraction to others  If we like people who share our attitudes and beliefs, then we can reasonably expect them to like us for the same reason Relationship:  Human adults do almost all of their reproducing in the context of committed, long-term relationshipshuman infants are remarkably helpless creatures that require years of intense care before they can fend for themselves  Passionate love: an experience involving feeling of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction o Bring people together o Has a rapid onset 開始reaches its peak quicklybegins to diminish within just a few months  Companionate love: an experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner’s well-being o Takes some time to get startgrows slowlyneed never stop growing  The love we feel early in a relationship is not the same love we feel later  When people marry for passionate love they may not choose a partner with whom they can easily develop companionate love  Choosing marriage partner for childrenkeep children making mistakes (arranged marriage)tend to pick partners who have a high potential for companionate love  Social exchange: the hypothesis that people remain in relationship only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits o People compare their cost-benefit ratios to the alternativesComparison level: the cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve/ could attain in another relationship o Equity: a state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratio of ratio of 2 partners are roughly equalpeople may want their cost-benefit ratio to be high, and want them to about the same as their partner’smore distress when people the cost-benefit ratio are different than unfavorable o After people have poured significant resources (time, money, affection) into they relationship, they are more willing t settle for less favorable cost-benefit ratio Social influence: the ability to control another person’s behavior  3 basic motivation:  Hedonic Motive : To experience pleasure and to avoid experiencing pain  Approval Motive: To be accepted and to avoid being rejected o Normative influence: when another person’s behavior provides information about what is appropriate o Norm: customary standards for behavior that are widely shared by members of a culturewe learn norm with exceptional ease and we obey with exceptional fidelity o Norm of reciprocity: the unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefit them (involves swapping, but swapping doesn’t involve favors)  Door-in-the-face: a strategy that uses reciprocating concessions to influence behavior: ask someone for sth more valuable than what you wantwait for the person to refuseask the person for what you really want o Conformity: the tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it  The behavior of others can tell us what is proper, appropriate, expected, accepted (norm) o Obedience: the tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do (normative pressure)  Accuracy Motive: To believe what is right and to avoid what is wrong o Attitude: an enduring positive/ negative evaluation of an object/ event o Belief: an enduring piece of knowledge about an object/ event o Informational influence: when another person’s behavior provides information about what is good or rightwhen you stop and stare at the top of a tall buildingother people will stop and stare toobecause they assume that if you are looking, then there must be something worth looking at o Persuasion: when person’s attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person  Systematic persuasion: the process by appeals 呼籲 to reason  Appeals to logical and reason, and assumes that people will be more persuaded when evidence and arguments are strong  Heuristic persuasion: the process by which attitudes /beliefs are changed by appeals to habit/ emotion  Appeals to habit and emotion, and assumes that rather than weighing evidence and analyzing argumentshelp them to decide whether to believe a communication o Consistency:  We are motivated to be accuracy consistency is a rough reassure of accuracy  Foot-in-the-door: a technique that involves a small request followed by a larger request  Cognitive dissonance: an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his/ her actions, attitudes, beliefs Medial prefrontal cortex: remains active all the time  When you think about attributes of other people but not about the attributes of inanimate objects (houses/ tools)  Social cognitive: the processes by which people come to understand others Stereotyping: the process by which we draw inferences about others based on knowledge of the categories to which they belong  Stereotypes can be inaccurate: o Most of what we know about the members of human categories is hearsay (stuff we picked up from friends and uncles, from novels and newspapers, jokes and movies, TV) o Directly observation can produce inaccurate stereotypes: bad behavior was rare and being a member of group B was raremore likely to be noticed when they co-occurred  Stereotypes can be overused: o The mere act of categorizing people as Blacks/ Whites, artists/ accountants, can cause us to underestimate the variability within those categories and to overestimate the variability btw them o When we underestimate the variability of a human category, we overestimate how useful our stereotypes can be  Stereotypes can be self-perpetuating: o Perceptual confirmation: the tendency for people to see what they expect to see  Stereotypes perpetuate themselves in part by biasing our perception of individualslead us to believe that those individuals have confirmed our stereotypes even when they have not o Self-fulfilling prophecy: the tendency for people to cause what they expect to see  Causing the stereotyped individual to behave in ways that confirm the stereotype  When people know that the observers have a –ve stereotype about them, they may experience stereotype threat/ fear to confirming an observer’s stereotypethis fear can cause people to behave in precisely the way that the stereotype predicts o Subtyping: the tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them  PR agentsociable  When encounter a slightly unsociable PR agent people tend to accommodate the new info  When encounter a extremely unsociable PR agent people tend to think it as “an exception to the rule”, preserve their stereotypes about PR agents in general  Stereotyping can be automatic: o Stereotyping happens unconsciously and automatically Attribution: drawing inferences from Actions:  Attribution: inferences about the causes of people’s behaviors  Situational attribution: when we decide that a person’s behavior was caused by some temporary aspect of the situation in which it happened  Dispositional attribution: when we decide that a person’s behavior was caused by his/ her relatively enduring tendency to think, feel/ act in a particular way  Covariation model: consistency (regularity), distinctiveness (generality), consensus (typicality)  Correspondence bias: the tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person’s behavior was caused by the situation (fundamental attribution error) o Eg. Even when we know that a successful athlete had a home field advent/ that a successful entrepreneur had family connections, we tend to attribute their success to talent and tenacity o What cause??  The situational causes of behavior are often invisible  Situational attributions tend to be more complex than dispositional attributions and require more time and attention  Info about situations is hard to get and hard to useprone to believe other’s action are caused by their disposition o Actor-observer effect: the tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others  People have more info about the situation that caused their own behavior than other people’s behavior CH. 15 Disorders 1/23/2013 7:20:00 PM Medical model: the conceptualization of psychological disorders as diseases that, like physical diseases, have biological causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures  Knowing a person’s diagnosis is useful because any given category of mental illness is likely to have a distinctive cause  Each category of psychology disorder is likely to have a common prognosis (a typical course over time and susceptibility to treatment and cure)  Disadvantage: it is rarely useful to focus on a single cause that is internal to the person and that suggests a single cure Syndrome: a coherent cluster of symptoms usually due to a single cause DSM (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder)  DSM-IV-TR: a classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems  3 key elements: o A disorder is manifested in symptoms that involve disturbances in behavior, thoughts, emotions o The symptoms are associated with significant personal distress/ impairment o The symptoms stem 起源 from an internal dysfunction (biological, psychological…)  Global assessment of function: a 1 to 100 rating of the person, with more severe disorders indicated by lower numbers and more effective functioning by higher numbers  Comorbidity: the co-occurrence of two/ more disorders in a single individual o Raises a host of confusing possibilities:  A person could be depressed because a phobia makes social situations impossible/
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