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PSYA02 mTuner 1.docx

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Kriste O' Neil

mTuner 1 – Chapters 9 and 10 1) What is a morpheme? It is the smallest meaningful unit of language. 2) Suzy has just begun to produce full sentences. Suzy is likely to be at least ___months old. 36. Explanation: Between 36-60 months of age, infants begin to produce full sentences. 3) Items that are more readily available to memory are judged as having occurred more frequently. This is called the ___. Availability bias. 4) What is the speech style of patients diagnosed with Broca’s aphasia? They speak in short, staccato phrases that consist mostly of content morphemes. Explanation: People with Broca’s aphasia understand language relatively well, although they have increasing comprehension difficulty as grammatical structures get more complex. But their real struggle is with speech production: Typically, they speak in short, staccato phrases that consist mostly of content morphemes (e.g., cat, dog). 5) Whereas ___ is generally assessed by tests of vocabulary, factual information, and so on, ___ is generally assessed by tests that pose novel, abstract problems that must be solved under time pressure. Crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence. Explanation: Crystallized intelligence involves the retention and utilization of previously learned information. Fluid intelligence involves the processing of novel information. 6) What is the main claim of prospect theory? That people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains. 7) Bob’s mental age is 30. His IQ is 100. How old is Bob? 30. Explanation: Age=(100 x Mental Age)/IQ 2 8) Why is h higher among wealthy kinds than among poor kinds? Wealthy children have fairly similar environments. 9) A test taker is asked what 19 pairs of words have in common. For example, the test taker is asked: “In what way are an apple and a pear alike?” From which subtest of the WAIS-III was this test item drawn from? Similarities. 10) J.Philippe Rushton, a very controversial and disliked psychologist, argued that…Asians are more intelligent than Whites and that Whites are more intelligent than Blacks. 11) Word fluency, perceptual speed, and verbal comprehension are examples of what Thurstone would call…primary mental abilities. 12) According to ___, we make classify new objects by comparing them to ___ member of a category. According to ___, we classify new objects by comparing them to all category members. Prototype theory, the most typical member, exemplar theory. 13) People seem to ignore information about base rates. This is related to the representativeness heuristic. Explanation: People seem to ignore information about base rates, or the existing probability of an event, basing their judgements on similarities to categories. Researchers call this the representativeness heuristic- making a probability judgement by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event. 14) Suzy is 24 months old. She speaks in two-word sentences like, “more milk” and “throw ball.” Such sentences are referred to as ___. Telegraphic speech. Explanation: Such sentences are referred to as telegraphic speech because they are devoid of function morphemes and consist mostly of content words. 15) What is the function of content morphemes? Content morphemes refer to things and events (e.g., “cat”,”dog”,”take). 16) The ___ refers to those environmental factors that are not experienced by all relevant members of a household. Non-shared environment. 17) In regards to decision-making processes, the results of the speed dating study discussed in lecture study provide further evidence of…the irrationality of human decision-making. 18) Intelligence research is similar to personality research in that both involve…the study of individual differences. 19) According to Dr.Joordens, language allows us to not have to…re-discover the same thing over and over again. Explanation: There is no doubt that this is an important feature of language. 20) An algorithm is like ___, while a heuristic is like ___. A formula, a rule of thumb. 21) Genie was locked away as a young child, never being exposed to the spoken word. As a consequence of this tragic upbringing, Genie never learned to talk. This very sad story provides evidence of…critical period in language development. Explanation: Is there a period of time when the brain is “ready” to learn language? Yes, critical periods in language development exist (perhaps between ages 3 and 9). 22) Imagin
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