mTuner 1 – Chapters 9 and 10
1) What is a morpheme? It is the smallest meaningful unit of
2) Suzy has just begun to produce full sentences. Suzy is likely to be
at least ___months old. 36. Explanation: Between 36-60 months
of age, infants begin to produce full sentences.
3) Items that are more readily available to memory are judged as
having occurred more frequently. This is called the ___.
4) What is the speech style of patients diagnosed with Broca’s
aphasia? They speak in short, staccato phrases that consist mostly
of content morphemes. Explanation: People with Broca’s aphasia
understand language relatively well, although they have
increasing comprehension difficulty as grammatical structures
get more complex. But their real struggle is with speech
production: Typically, they speak in short, staccato phrases that
consist mostly of content morphemes (e.g., cat, dog).
5) Whereas ___ is generally assessed by tests of vocabulary, factual
information, and so on, ___ is generally assessed by tests that pose
novel, abstract problems that must be solved under time pressure.
Crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence. Explanation:
Crystallized intelligence involves the retention and utilization of
previously learned information. Fluid intelligence involves the
processing of novel information.
6) What is the main claim of prospect theory? That people choose to
take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when
evaluating potential gains. 7) Bob’s mental age is 30. His IQ is 100. How old is Bob? 30.
Explanation: Age=(100 x Mental Age)/IQ
8) Why is h higher among wealthy kinds than among poor kinds?
Wealthy children have fairly similar environments.
9) A test taker is asked what 19 pairs of words have in common. For
example, the test taker is asked: “In what way are an apple and a
pear alike?” From which subtest of the WAIS-III was this test item
drawn from? Similarities.
10) J.Philippe Rushton, a very controversial and disliked
psychologist, argued that…Asians are more intelligent than Whites
and that Whites are more intelligent than Blacks.
11) Word fluency, perceptual speed, and verbal comprehension
are examples of what Thurstone would call…primary mental
12) According to ___, we make classify new objects by
comparing them to ___ member of a category. According to ___,
we classify new objects by comparing them to all category
members. Prototype theory, the most typical member, exemplar
13) People seem to ignore information about base rates. This is
related to the representativeness heuristic. Explanation: People
seem to ignore information about base rates, or the existing
probability of an event, basing their judgements on similarities to
categories. Researchers call this the representativeness heuristic-
making a probability judgement by comparing an object or event
to a prototype of the object or event.
14) Suzy is 24 months old. She speaks in two-word sentences
like, “more milk” and “throw ball.” Such sentences are referred to
as ___. Telegraphic speech. Explanation: Such sentences are referred to as telegraphic speech because they are devoid of
function morphemes and consist mostly of content words.
15) What is the function of content morphemes? Content
morphemes refer to things and events (e.g., “cat”,”dog”,”take).
16) The ___ refers to those environmental factors that are not
experienced by all relevant members of a household. Non-shared
17) In regards to decision-making processes, the results of the
speed dating study discussed in lecture study provide further
evidence of…the irrationality of human decision-making.
18) Intelligence research is similar to personality research in that
both involve…the study of individual differences.
19) According to Dr.Joordens, language allows us to not have
to…re-discover the same thing over and over again. Explanation:
There is no doubt that this is an important feature of language.
20) An algorithm is like ___, while a heuristic is like ___. A
formula, a rule of thumb.
21) Genie was locked away as a young child, never being
exposed to the spoken word. As a consequence of this tragic
upbringing, Genie never learned to talk. This very sad story
provides evidence of…critical period in language development.
Explanation: Is there a period of time when the brain is “ready”
to learn language? Yes, critical periods in language development
exist (perhaps between ages 3 and 9).