Chapter 12 Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 12 Notes  Personalityis an individual’s characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling.  self-report—a series of answers to a questionnaire that asks people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or adjectives accurately describe their own behavior or mental state.  projective techniques, consist ofa standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual’s personality.  Rorschach Inkblot Test,a projective personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent’s inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure  Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)is a projective personality test in which respondents reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people.  a trait as a relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way.  The Big Five,as they are affectionately called, are the traits of the five-factor model: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and extraversion  The behavioral activation system (BAS), essentially a “go” system, activates approach behavior in response to the anticipation of reward  The behavioral inhibition system (BIS), a “stop” system, inhibits behavior in response to stimuli signaling punishment.  psychodynamic approach. According to this approach, personality is formed by needs, strivings, and desires largely operating outside of awareness—motives that can produce emotional disorders.  dynamic unconscious—an active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person’s deepest instincts and desires, and the person’s inner struggle to control these forces.  id, is the part of the mind containing the drives present at birth; it is the source of our bodily needs, wants, desires, and impulses, particularly our sexual and aggressive drives.  he ego is the component of personality, developed through contact with the external world, that enables us to deal with life’s practical demands  superego, the mental system that reflects the internal-ization of cultural rules, mainly learned as parents exercise their authority.  defense mechanisms, which are unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses.  Rationalization is a defense mechanism that involves supplying a reasonable-sounding explanation for unacceptable feelings and behavior to conceal (mostly from oneself) one’s underlying motives or feelings  Reaction formation is a defense mechanism that involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of their opposite.  Projection is a defense mechanism that involves attributing one’s own threatening feelings, motives, or impulses to another person or group  Regression is a defense mechanism in which the ego deals with internal conflict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development, a time when things felt safer and more secure  Displacement is a defense mechanism that involves shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to a neutral or less threatening alternative  Identification is a defense mechanism that helps deal with feelings of threat and anxiety by enabling us unconsciously to take on the characteristics of another person who seems more powerful or better able to cope.  Sublimation is a defense mechanism that involves channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities.  psychosexual stages, defined as distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience sexual pleasures from specific body areas and caregivers redirect or interfere with those pleasures.  fixation, meaning that the person’s pleasure-seeking drives become stuck, or arrested, at that psychosexual stage.  oral stage, during which experience centers on the pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth, sucking, and being fed  anal stage, during which experience is dominated by the pleasures and frustrations associated with the anus, retention and expulsion of feces and urine, and toilet training.  phallic stage, during which experience is dominated by the pleasure, conflict, and frustration associated with the phallic-genital region as well as coping with powerful incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealousy, and conflict.  Oedipus conflict, a developmental experience in which a child’s conflicting feelings toward the opposite-sex parent are (usually) resolved by identifying with the same- sex parent.  latency stage, in which the primary focus is on the further development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills.  genital stage, is the time for the coming together of the mature adult personality with a capacity to love, work, and relate to others in a mutually satisfying and reciprocal manner.  self-actualizing tendency, the human motive toward realizing our inner potential, as a major factor in personality  existential approachregards personality as governed by an individual’s ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death.  T he social cognitive approachviews personality in terms of how the person thinks about the situations encountered in daily life and behaves in response to them.  person-situation controversy, which focuses on the question of whether behavior is caused more by personality or by situational factors.  explanations of personality differences are concerned with
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