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Final Exam Notes (with images)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 14 PersonalityPersonality is a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from another Trait Theories of PersonalityPersonality Types and TraitsEarliest known theory was proposed by Hippocrates Greek physician in fourth century BCE and refined by Galen in second century CEBody was thought to contain four humours or fluids yellow bile made people choleric or badtempered and irritable black bile melancholic phlegm phlegmatic or sluggish calm and unexcitable and blood sanguine or cheerful and passionateHumours were discredited but the idea that people could be divided into different personality types lived onMany investigators today reject the idea that people can be assigned to discrete categories individual differences are different in degree not kind and prefer to measure the degree to which an individual expresses a particular personality traitIdentification of Personality TraitsGordon Allport 18971967 was one of first to search for basic core of personality traits began his work by identifying all words in an English dictionary that described aspects of personality and found 18 000 entriesAccording to Allport not all traits have equal influence on their possessors the most powerful traits were called cardinal traits characterize a strong unifying influence on a persons behaviour rare such as Hitlers evil Nelson Mandelas commitment to justice Mother Teresas altruismCentral traits capture important characteristics of an individual but are less singular in their influence eg being honest or warmSecondary traits have minor influence on consistency of behaviour eg tendency to frequently change jobsRaymond Cattell 19051998 used Allports 18 000word list as a starting point winnowed it down to 171 adjectives that he believed made up a complete set of distinct surface traits referring to observable behaviours then used factor analysis to identify clusters of traits he believed represented underlying traitsEventually identified 16 personality factors 1Hans Eysenck 19161997 identified three important factors extroversion opposite introversion neuroticism opposite emotional stability and psychoticism aggressive egocentric antisocial behaviour opposite selfcontrol Eysencks theory illustrated for two factors According to Eysenck the two dimensions of neuroticism stable vs unstable and introversionextroversion combine to form a variety of personality characteristics The four personality types based on the Greek theory of humours are shown in the centre The fivefactor model by Tupes and Christal 1961 proposes that personality is composed of five primary dimensions neuroticism extroversion openness agreeableness and conscientiousness measured by the Neuroticism Extraversion and Openness Personality Inventory NeoPIRNEOPIR consists of 240 items that can be used to describe the personality being evaluated test items eg I really like most people I meet I have a very active imaginationare rated on a scale of 15 the sum of the answers to different sets of items become scores on each of the five factors 2 Five factors can be used to predict subjective wellbeing and job performance extroversionsuccess in jobs that require leadership or improvisation conscientiousnesssuccess across all job classificationsData suggests factors are very heritable environmental factors pale beside genetic factorsThe Dark Triad traits that underlie socially offensive personalities are made up of machiavellianism skill at manipulation psychopathy lack of empathy and high degree of impulsivity and narcissism grandiosity and feelings of superiorityMales tend to score higher on Dark Triad testsConsiderable genetic influence on these traitsTraits across culturesThe five factors can be replicated in all cultures no cultural biasHowever cultures geographically close appear to share similar personality traits greatest similarities are between European and American cultures and between Asian and African cultures Europeans and Americans significantly more extroverted and open to experience but less agreeable than other culturesThe more individualistic the culture the greater the cultures belief that traits rather than situations determine behaviour Psychobiological ApproachesHeritability of Personality Traits According to Zuckerman 1991 the best estimates of heritability among Eysencks factors are extroversion 70 percent psychoticism 59 percent and neuroticism 48 percent therefore heritability is responsible for 5070 percent of these traits and the remaining 3050 percent of variability is caused by differences in environmentHowever research indicates that identical twins have no difference in personalities whether theyre raised separately or in the same environment so its not so simple 3
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