23 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 9 Language and ThoughtLanguage and Communication From Rules to MeaningLanguage a system for communicating w others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning Allows for info exchange coordination strong social bonds3 differences bw H language and animals1 Complex structure eg express wider range of ideas concepts make sentences 2 The intangible physically untouchable things eg ideas democracy couldnt have ev from alarm system 3 Categorize we noun things when thinking influencing our brains categ Of knowledgeGrammar set of rules that say how units of language can be combined to make meaningful messages Structure of Human LanguageAll lang share a simple structure of sound setssound combination rules in order to have meaningBasic CharacteristicsPhonemesBuilding blocks smallest sound unit thats seen as speech not noiseeg ba pa differ bc produced differently when spokenPhonological rules indicate how phonemes can be combined to make speech sounds When broken speechoddaccent Eg sound ts ok in German but not English It is learned wout instructionMorphemes smallest meaningful units of language Eg speech sound pmeaningpatMorpheme2 rules of Grammar 1 Morphological rules that direct how morphemes can combine to form words 2 types a Content morphemesnouns eg cat dog take b Function morphemes grammatical purpose is to tie sentences together and orwhen Makes our language complex so we can express abstract ideas 2 Syntactical rules governs word order of sentences Eg Eng sentence must have 1 nouns which can be combined with adjectives or articles to create noun phrases A sentence must also have 1 verbs which can be combined with adverbs to create verb phrases dogs barksentencethe big grey dog over by the buildingLanguage DevelopmentBabblingnatural language development Eg babies babble d and t before m and n Deaf babies sign babble around same age as hearing babies and in the same orderLanguage MilestoneFastmapping the fact that kids can map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure Telegraphic speech speech with only content morphemes Follows synactic rules 2yo eg throw ball not ball throw etcEmergence of Grammatical Rules Kids overgeneralize4yo but spoke grammatically correct prior to learning pasttense verb usageErrors show kids acquire the grammatical rules by listening to the speech around them and using the rules to create verbal forms theyve never heardLanguage development and Cognitive DevelopmentLanguage development unfolds as a sequence of steps where one milestone must be achieved before the nextCase study examined English acquisition by internationally adopted children with no English knowledge preadoptionConclusion preschoolers learned language in the same milestone order thats characterized in infants Theories of Language Development 1 Behaviourist BF Skinner We learn speech through reinforcement shaping extinction and through operant conditioning Eg prahwhatever dadaattention from parentsstaysAnti Behaviourist doesnt account for many fundamental characteristic of language development a Parents really dont spend time teaching their kids to speak grammatically A study found that parents specifically respond more to the truth content of their childrens statements rather that the grammar b Children make more grammatical sentences than they ever hear Evidence that children dont imitate but learn the rules for generating sentences c Behaviourist explanation doesnt explain overgeneralization It would be difficult to overgeneralize if language development consisted of only reinforced individual sentences or phrases 2 Nativist Explanation Noam Chomsky linguist language development is best explained as an innate biological capacityBrain has language acquisition device LAD a collection of processes that facilitate language learningExplains Genetic dysphasia an inability to learn the grammatical structure of language despite having otherwise norm int sentence examples she remembered when she hurts herself the other day 355 a Studies of ppl w this suggest that norm kids learn the grammatical rules bc theyre wired to do so This explains why newborns can make contrasts among phonemesLanguage can be acquired only during critical time of development Once puberty is reached it is difficult to learnDoesnt explain how they learn language only why 3 Interactionist ExplanationsSocial interaction is important to learning language Eg parents speak slower and pronunciate moreCase study deaf Nicaraguan kids make own sign language Younger ones acquire this and further the usage to include separate signs to indicate direction and movement type This shows the characteristics of a mature languageLanguage Development and the Brain 1 Language processing becomes concentrated in two areas Brocas area and Wernickes arealanguage centres Damageaphasia difficulty in producing or comprehending language Brocas aphasiacomprehension and speech difficulty uses content morphemes mostlyLeft frontal cortex produces of sequential patterns in vocal and sign languageWernickes area left temporal cortex language comprehension Wernicks apasia produce meaningless but grammatically correct speech and have difficulty understanding languageCan Other Species Learn LanguageApes lack vocal tracts needed for Human speech Communicate through American sign language ASL and keyboardsChimp Woshoe made sentences taught adopted baby chimp to ASL Baby chimp learned asl wout experience from humansYoung chimp Kanzi communicated with geometric keyboard system Mother couldnt learn it Evidence of critical period for learning communication W tech apes can learn our language if taught early LimitationsVocabulary sizehundreds Human child10 k Hard to learn intangible words Grammar complexity never reaches 34 wordsLanguage and ThoughtLinguistic relativity hypothesis language shapes the nature of thoughtBenjamin Whorf into Native Languages 1956 Believed that because inuit have so many terms for snow the Inuit they perceive and think about snow differently Criticism Case study by Eleanor Rosch studied the Dani agricultural tribe of New Guinea who have only 2 words for colour dark and light To Whorf the dani cant learn colour shades but Roschs studied concluded otherwise they learned just as well as others who had more words for colour shadesCase study the relationship between language and thought researchers looked at the way people think about time In English we use horizontal spatial terms Mandarin uses vertical spatial terms 362 Concepts and Categories How We ThinkConcept A mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related objects events or other stimuli Described earlier as rules that specify the necessary and sufficient conditions for membership in a certain category A necessary condition is something that must be true of the object in order for it to belong to the category eg if someone tells you something is an animal is a german sheppard and you know german sheppards are a type of dog then the animal must be a dog Psychological theories of Concepts and Categories3 theories that try to explain how people perform acts of categorization 1 Family resemblance Theory Eleanor Rosch Members of a categ have features that appear to be characteristic of categ members but may not ne possessed by every member Eg all birds have feathers and wings so these are the characteristic features of the bird category 2 Prototype theory the best or most typical member of a category Organizing things based on prototype depends on surroundings Eg bird prototype differs for ppl in diff environmental regions bc there will be different birds 3 Exemplar theory argues we make category judgement by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances if the category Eg seeing a new dog which resembles friends german shepperd which makes you conclude its a dog Concepts Categories and the Brainwe use both protypes and exemplars when forming concepts and categories left hemispherevisual cortexforms prototypes Right hemisphere basal gangliaprefrontal cortex recognizinglearning exemplarsexemplarbased learning involves analysis and decision making prefrontal cortex prototype formation is a more holistic process involving image processing visual cortexcategoryspecific deficit a neurological syndrome thats characterized by an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category though the ability to recognize objects outside the category is undisturbedstroke patient adam has difficulty recognizing biological objects cherryyoyo mouseowl but could recognize nonliving things eg spatulaspatula etc
More Less

Related notes for PSYA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.