Study of behavior: within last 100 years
Philosophers: thinking arguing and debating
Scientists: thinking arguing debating + experiments and data collection
Animism: everything has a soul
IBM computer name: Watson
Rene Descartes: Dualism
Dualism: the belief that the mind (soul) controlled the body (machine).
Rene Descartes believed animals had no soul, just machines.
Jon Locke: Said even mind is a machine.
Jon Locke: La Table Rassa: Believed people were born as a blank slate (not true).
Jon Locke: Empiricism: Figuring out the truth via experiences
James Mill: called John Locke’s theory Materialism
Luigi Galvani: Frog leg experiment showed that body is biological machine.
Johannes Muller: Doctrine of Specific Nerve: body made of wires. First to describe body
in machine terms.
Pierr Florens:Ablation studies: destroy certain parts of the brain. Found that parts had
Paul Broca: Localization of language. Patients understood what was being said but not
speak, caused by damage of the Broca area.
Anthropomorphism: Treating objects like animals or people.
Psychology: Science of behavior thought and experience
Hypothesis: testable prediction about processes that can be measured and observed.
Astrology: not a science.
Pseudoscience: Ideas presented as science but does not use scientific methods.
Theory: Explanation to a broad range of observations that generates new hypotheses.Any
theory must be falsifiable. Biopsycholosocial Model: means of explaining behavior from biological psychological
and sociocultural factors.
Scientific literacy: to understand analyze and apply scientific information
Massing: Breaking up deck and study each part
Spacing: more time between cards one deck
Critical thinking: involves curiosity and skepticism.
Psychology started in Germany.
Hermann von Helmholtz: Measuring speed of neural impulses. Neural impulses are slow
Ernst Weber: Psychophysics: measure of what goes on in brain.
Ernest Weber: Found JND was a constant factor.
Wilhelm Wundt: First to call himself psychologist. Wrote Principles of Physiological
Psychology structuralist approach
Darwin: Survival of the fittest: attributes fit an environment, then you are more likely to
William James: Began to look at functionalism.
Wundt and Weber looked at structure
Herman Von Ebbinghaus: Memorized deck of cards. Made the forgetting function.
Sigmund Freud: Trained doctor, not psychologist. Unexplainable blindness.
Motivation: Basic needs: Powerful, easy. Sigmund Freud theorized that aggression & Sex
Empiricism: Seeing is believing. Knowledge gained through experiences
Determinism: belief that all events are governed by cause and effect relations.
Zeitgeist: general set of beliefs of a particular culture at a specific time in history
Materialism: We are completely machines.
Psychophysics: relationship between physical world and mental world. Fechner’s factor
Clinical Psychology: Focus on diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
Brain localization: idea parts of brain have special functions
1) Phrenology: brain 27 organs. Examine skull to find disorder. WRONG.
2) Brain injuries and behavior. Patient named Tan. Left side damaged,Called
3) Karl Wernicke identified Wernicke’s area. patients spoke sentences that
sounded normal but made no sense.
Psychomatic Medicine: Cures by believing the treatment.
Franz Mesmer: Hypnosis: Cured patients of hysterical paralysis
Psychoanalysis: attempts to explain behavior and personality are influenced by
Galton: Eminence: combination of ability morality and achievement
Galton: Nature vs Nurture
Galton believed in Eugenics: saving good genes
Biological Psychology: explains behavior using genetic physiological and brain as basis.
Wundt’s primary research method was introspection: to look within.
Behaviorism: Studying observational behavior without mentioning mental events (Ivan
Pavlov, John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner)
Humanistic Psychology: Belief that humans are fundamentally different than animals
Gestalt Psychology: Emphasis that psychologists need to focus on perception and
experience rather than its parts. Ie Standing behind podium, know he has legs.
Sigmund Freud: Created two psychologies
The Cognitive Revolution:
Confound- An outside variable that may be the cause for a result of the experiment
Random Sampling- Choosing samples at a random
Replications- Having people do your experiment several times Dissemination- Telling the world what you found
Publications- APAformatted manuscripts
Catharsis: relief of emotional tension that occurs when the source of a psychological
disorder is discovered and accepted in psychoanalysis.
Parsimony*** Chapter 3
o basic units of hereditary
o responsible for guiding the process of creating the proteins that make up
our physical structures
o regulate development and physiological processes throughout life span
o Structures in nucleus that are lined with all the genes an individual inherits
o Humans have 30000 genes distributed accross 23 pairs of chromosomes
half from father half from mother
o Molecule formed in double helix shape that contains four amino acids
o Genetic makeup of an organism
o Observable characteristics, physical and behavioral
o Corresponding genes on a pair of chromosomes are the same
o Corresponding genes are different.
- For example: PTC and bitter taste. Must inherit at least one copy of the gene.
Non-tasters at homozygous.
- Behavioral Genetics
o Study of how genes and environment influence behavior.
- Monozygotic Twins
o Come from one ovum, makes them identical.
- Dizygotic Twins
o Come from two separate eggs fertilized by two different sperm cells.
o Astatistic expressed from 0 to 1
o Represents the degree to which genetic differences between individuals
contribute to individual differences in a behavior or trait found in a
o Can change with age
o Early on: more like adoptive parents
o Later (around 16): more like biological parents - Behavioral Genomics
o Study of DNA and the ways specific genes are related to behavior.
- Human Genome Project
o Identification of 30000 genes
o Did not provide a cure for disease, instead it led to new techniques, info
about where genes are located
- Combination of genes produce traits, not single genes.
o Traits that help a species survive in an environment
o The change in frequency of genes over generations
- Natural Selection
o Process by which favorable traits become increasingly common in a
population, and unfavorable for individuals without that trait.
o We like symmetric faces
o Theorize that we like symmetry because it represents healthiness
- Stereotype threat
o Presenting a stereotype that hurts someone’s ability to perform. Ie women
o Short- more likely to be depressed
o Long- Less likely to be depressed
o Major type of cells found in nervous system.
o Responsible for sending and receiving messages throughout the body
- Cell Body
o Part of a neuron that contains the nucleus that houses genetic material
o Aka Soma
o Small branches radiating from the cell body, receiving messages from
other cells and transmit the message toward the cell body
o Structure that transports information from the neuron to neighboring
neurons in the form of electrochemical reactions.
o Chemicals that function as messages allowing neurons to communicate
with each other o Located inside axon terminals
o Released across synapses
o Microscopically small spaces that separate individual nerve cells
- Sensory Neurons
o Fetch information and brings to brain
- Motor Neurons
o Carry messages away
o Fatty sheath that insulates axons from one another, which result in
increase speed and efficiency of neural communication
o Made from glia
- Multiple Sclerosis
o Disease in which immune system does not recognize myelin and attacks it.
- Glial Cell
o Specialized cell of nervous system that are involved in mounting immune
responses in the brain, removing wastes, and synchronizing activities in
billions of neurons of the nervous system.
- Resting potential
o Refers to relatively stable state during which the cell is not transmitting
o Has high concentration of positively charged ions (ie sodium and
potassium) and inside has high concentration of negatively charged ions
o Difference between inside and out -70 millivolts.
o When neurons are put into action its called neuron firing.
- Action potential
o Awave of electrical activity that originates at the base of the axon and
rapidly travels down its length
o Sodium pores shut and are pumped back out at the end.
- Synaptic cleft
o The minute space between the terminal button and the dendrite
- Refractory period
o Abrief period in which a neuron cannot fire.
- All-or-none principle
o Individual nerve cells fire at the same strength every time an action