Study Guides (238,074)
Canada (114,908)
Psychology (1,813)
PSYA02H3 (160)
Drbrown (1)

Psychology Quizzes.docx

13 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough

Psychology  Lec 1 Study of behavior: within last 100 years Philosophers: thinking arguing and debating Scientists: thinking arguing debating + experiments and data collection Animism: everything has a soul IBM computer name: Watson Rene Descartes: Dualism Dualism: the belief that the mind (soul) controlled the body (machine). Rene Descartes believed animals had no soul, just machines. Jon Locke: Said even mind is a machine. Jon Locke: La Table Rassa: Believed people were born as a blank slate (not true). Jon Locke: Empiricism: Figuring out the truth via experiences James Mill: called John Locke’s theory Materialism Luigi Galvani: Frog leg experiment showed that body is biological machine. Johannes Muller: Doctrine of Specific Nerve: body made of wires. First to describe body in machine terms. Pierr Florens:Ablation studies: destroy certain parts of the brain. Found that parts had specific functions Paul Broca: Localization of language. Patients understood what was being said but not speak, caused by damage of the Broca area. Anthropomorphism: Treating objects like animals or people. Psychology: Science of behavior thought and experience Scientific Method: Hypothesis: testable prediction about processes that can be measured and observed. Astrology: not a science. Pseudoscience: Ideas presented as science but does not use scientific methods. Theory: Explanation to a broad range of observations that generates new hypotheses.Any theory must be falsifiable. Biopsycholosocial Model: means of explaining behavior from biological psychological and sociocultural factors. Scientific literacy: to understand analyze and apply scientific information Massing: Breaking up deck and study each part Spacing: more time between cards one deck Critical thinking: involves curiosity and skepticism. Lec 2 Psychology started in Germany. Hermann von Helmholtz: Measuring speed of neural impulses. Neural impulses are slow Ernst Weber: Psychophysics: measure of what goes on in brain. Ernest Weber: Found JND was a constant factor. Wilhelm Wundt: First to call himself psychologist. Wrote Principles of Physiological Psychology structuralist approach Darwin: Survival of the fittest: attributes fit an environment, then you are more likely to survive. William James: Began to look at functionalism. Wundt and Weber looked at structure Herman Von Ebbinghaus: Memorized deck of cards. Made the forgetting function. Sigmund Freud: Trained doctor, not psychologist. Unexplainable blindness. Motivation: Basic needs: Powerful, easy. Sigmund Freud theorized that aggression & Sex drive us. Empiricism: Seeing is believing. Knowledge gained through experiences Determinism: belief that all events are governed by cause and effect relations. Zeitgeist: general set of beliefs of a particular culture at a specific time in history Materialism: We are completely machines. Psychophysics: relationship between physical world and mental world. Fechner’s factor Clinical Psychology: Focus on diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders Brain localization: idea parts of brain have special functions 1) Phrenology: brain 27 organs. Examine skull to find disorder. WRONG. 2) Brain injuries and behavior. Patient named Tan. Left side damaged,Called BrocaArea 3) Karl Wernicke identified Wernicke’s area. patients spoke sentences that sounded normal but made no sense. Psychomatic Medicine: Cures by believing the treatment. Franz Mesmer: Hypnosis: Cured patients of hysterical paralysis Psychoanalysis: attempts to explain behavior and personality are influenced by unconscious processes. Galton: Eminence: combination of ability morality and achievement Galton: Nature vs Nurture Galton believed in Eugenics: saving good genes Biological Psychology: explains behavior using genetic physiological and brain as basis. Wundt’s primary research method was introspection: to look within. Behaviorism: Studying observational behavior without mentioning mental events (Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner) Humanistic Psychology: Belief that humans are fundamentally different than animals Gestalt Psychology: Emphasis that psychologists need to focus on perception and experience rather than its parts. Ie Standing behind podium, know he has legs. Lec 3 Sigmund Freud: Created two psychologies  The Cognitive Revolution: Confound- An outside variable that may be the cause for a result of the experiment Random Sampling- Choosing samples at a random Replications- Having people do your experiment several times Dissemination- Telling the world what you found Publications- APAformatted manuscripts Conference Presentations- Invited Talks- Wikipedia- Catharsis: relief of emotional tension that occurs when the source of a psychological disorder is discovered and accepted in psychoanalysis. Parsimony*** Chapter 3 - Genes: o basic units of hereditary o responsible for guiding the process of creating the proteins that make up our physical structures o regulate development and physiological processes throughout life span - Chromosomes o Structures in nucleus that are lined with all the genes an individual inherits o Humans have 30000 genes distributed accross 23 pairs of chromosomes half from father half from mother - DNA o Molecule formed in double helix shape that contains four amino acids - Genotype o Genetic makeup of an organism - Phenotype o Observable characteristics, physical and behavioral - Homozygous o Corresponding genes on a pair of chromosomes are the same - Heterozygous o Corresponding genes are different. - For example: PTC and bitter taste. Must inherit at least one copy of the gene. Non-tasters at homozygous. - Behavioral Genetics o Study of how genes and environment influence behavior. - Monozygotic Twins o Come from one ovum, makes them identical. - Dizygotic Twins o Come from two separate eggs fertilized by two different sperm cells. - Heritability o Astatistic expressed from 0 to 1 o Represents the degree to which genetic differences between individuals contribute to individual differences in a behavior or trait found in a population. o Can change with age - Intelligence o Early on: more like adoptive parents o Later (around 16): more like biological parents - Behavioral Genomics o Study of DNA and the ways specific genes are related to behavior. - Human Genome Project o Identification of 30000 genes o Did not provide a cure for disease, instead it led to new techniques, info about where genes are located - Combination of genes produce traits, not single genes. - Adaptations o Traits that help a species survive in an environment - Evolution o The change in frequency of genes over generations - Natural Selection o Process by which favorable traits become increasingly common in a population, and unfavorable for individuals without that trait. - Attraction o We like symmetric faces o Theorize that we like symmetry because it represents healthiness - Stereotype threat o Presenting a stereotype that hurts someone’s ability to perform. Ie women are dumb - Mood o Serotonin o Short- more likely to be depressed o Long- Less likely to be depressed - - Neurons o Major type of cells found in nervous system. o Responsible for sending and receiving messages throughout the body - Cell Body o Part of a neuron that contains the nucleus that houses genetic material o Aka Soma - Dendrites o Small branches radiating from the cell body, receiving messages from other cells and transmit the message toward the cell body - Axon o Structure that transports information from the neuron to neighboring neurons in the form of electrochemical reactions. - Neurotransmitters o Chemicals that function as messages allowing neurons to communicate with each other o Located inside axon terminals o Released across synapses - Synapses o Microscopically small spaces that separate individual nerve cells - Sensory Neurons o Fetch information and brings to brain - Motor Neurons o Carry messages away - Myelin o Fatty sheath that insulates axons from one another, which result in increase speed and efficiency of neural communication o Made from glia - Multiple Sclerosis o Disease in which immune system does not recognize myelin and attacks it. - Glial Cell o Specialized cell of nervous system that are involved in mounting immune responses in the brain, removing wastes, and synchronizing activities in billions of neurons of the nervous system. - Resting potential o Refers to relatively stable state during which the cell is not transmitting messages o Has high concentration of positively charged ions (ie sodium and potassium) and inside has high concentration of negatively charged ions (ie chloride). o Difference between inside and out -70 millivolts. o When neurons are put into action its called neuron firing. - Action potential o Awave of electrical activity that originates at the base of the axon and rapidly travels down its length o Sodium pores shut and are pumped back out at the end. - Synaptic cleft o The minute space between the terminal button and the dendrite - Refractory period o Abrief period in which a neuron cannot fire. - All-or-none principle o Individual nerve cells fire at the same strength every time an action
More Less

Related notes for PSYA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.