PSYA02 – Intro to Psychology Part II
Chapter 9 ▯ Intelligence, Aptitude, and Cognitive Abilities
Intelligence – Ability to think, understand, reason, and adapt to overcome obstacles.
▯ Achievement and Aptitude
Tests mental ability
1) Achievement Test
Measure knowledge and thinking skills
Ex. Test and quizzes
2) Aptitude Tests
Designed to measure an individuals potential to preform in a range of tasks.
Ex. College entrance exams such as SAT
Achievement test measure current abilities and aptitude predict future performance.
Constructing and Evaluating Tests
Constructing a questionnaire or test falls under the branch of psychology called
The measurement of psychological traits and abilities
(personality, attitudes, intelligence).
Important concepts in psychometrics are:
• Validity – degree to which a test measures what’s its intended to.
• Reliability – produces constant results
testretest reliability, get same results when test is done
▯ Standardization and Norms
Standardized Test – A set of questions or problems are administered and scored in a uniform
way across a large number of individuals.
Allows for comparison among individuals
Norms – Statistic that allows individuals to be evaluated relative to a standard score. 2
Percentile Rank – The percentage of scores below a certain point.
Ex. 84 percentile means 84% are below a certain score.
▯ The StanfordBinet Test
An achievement test to measure a childs performance relative to other children of the same age.
New law required that all children must attend school, all of the same age not of the same
Mental Age – The average test score for a specific chronological age.
Children with lower mental ages than their chronological age would require more help in school to
get caught up.
StanfordBinet Test – Test intended to measure
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – Mental age/
chronological age x 100.
IQ changed, test was given a average of 100 and a
standard deviation of 16, therefore a persons IQ was
simply their score on the test.
▯ The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) – most commonly used intelligence test used
on adults and children.
Provides a single IQ score, Full Scale IQ, and breaks intelligence in two.
1) General Ability Index (GAI) – Comprehension and reasoning.
2) Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) – Working memory and processing speed
▯ Raven’s Progressive Matrices
Also known as Raven’s Matrices.
Is an intelligence test that emphasizes problems that are not intended to be bound to a particular
language or culture.
Problems do not require knowledge of a language or culture to complete, are universal.
Picture and image problems.
▯ Measuring Perception and Memory 3
Sir Francis Galton thought that families who consisted of mostly intelligent people were
“genetically gifted” and a result of good breeding.
First to use Anthropometrics – a method of measuring physical and mental variations.
Testing showed that family does not correlate to intelligence.
Psychologists believe that working memory and intelligence are one in the same.
Debate over it.
Autism impairs ability to develop social and emotional connections with people, even parents.
▯ Intelligence as a General Ability
Charles Spearman developed a technique to calculate the correlations among multiple
measures of mental ability.
Factor Analysis – A statistical technique that reveals similarities among a wide variety of items.
Reading, comprehension, and verbal reasoning overlap to form “ Lanuage ability”.
General Intelligence (g) Hypothesizes by Spearman
A concept that intelligence is a basic trait comprising the ability
to learn, reason, and solve problems regardless of their nature.
Intelligence appears to be divided into at least 3 categories:
1) Fluid Intelligence (Gf) – Used to adapt to new situations and solve problems without relying of
Ex. Raven Matrices
2) Crystallized Intelligence (Gc) – Form of intelligence that relies on extensive experience and
knowledge, relatively stable.
Gc may increase with age, Gf decrease with age.
▯ Intelligence as Multiple Abilities
Some people more intelligent towards some topics but average or below average on other topics.
Savants – Individuals with low mental capacity in most domains but extraordinary abilities in
other areas such as music, math, or art.
• Triarchic theory of intelligence (Robert Sternberg)
Intelligence compromised three overlapping components: 4
1) Analytical Intelligence – Verbal, mathematical problem solving type.
2) Practical Intelligence – Address realworld problems encountered in daily life.
3) Creative Intelligence – Ability to create new ideas to solve problems.
Multiple Intelligences – Model claiming eight different forms of intelligence.
All unique ways of expressing intellectual ability.
Learning Styles – Hypothesis that individuals are different in how they acquire information.
Evidence hard to support theory.
▯ The Flynn Effect – Is Everyone Getting Smarter?
Estimated that the average increase 1 point every 3 years.
Flynn Effect – Refers to the steady population level increase in intelligence test scores over
Recent data suggests that the Flynn effect may be coming to an end, or may be reversing.
Developing countries getting their turn with the Flynn effect.
Exposure to technology may be responsible as to why children are more intelligent than their
Oldest siblings tend to have higher IQ’s
The tutor younger siblings, intellectually benefiting older sibling more than younger.
▯ Intelligence and Heredity
Research on adopted children and twins have shown that genetic similarity contributes to
Identical twins are more alike in intelligence than fraternal twins.
Identical twins share 100% of their genes.
Identical twins raised together have a correlation of 0.85, when raised apart they have a
correlation of 0.80 (still a strong correlation).
Correlation raised together could be due to environment.
▯ Behavioral Genomics
The study of how specific genes, in interaction with the environment, influence behavior.
Have identified genes that may be associated with intelligence.
Gene Knockout (KO) Studies – Involve removing a specific gene thought to be involved in
a trait to compare behavior after removing gene to animals that have not had gene removed. 5
Use mice in intelligence KO studies.
Can take opposite approach, insert genetic material to observe change in behavior.
Referred to as transgenic animals.
Genes clearly have some effect on intelligence.
▯ Environmental Influences on Intelligence
Environmental factors play a role.
Growing up in a stimulating environment results in faster learning and enhanced brain
development and functioning.
Environmental Factors that influence Intelligence:
1) Health and Nutrition
Diet and lifestyle effect intelligence
Children who eat healthy attend school more frequently and spend more time on
Children with parent who make a higher income have higher IQ’s
Lower income families face more stress which distract children from school and
negatively impact brain development.
3) Season of Birth
Children born in the beginning of the year have higher verbal and math aptitude.
▯ Group Similarities and Differences
Women are typically more skilled in verbal fluency tasks.
Males is visualspatial manipulation
Engineering and mathematics
Racial and ethnic differences.
Poverty, lowincome, and low opportunity lead to lower scores on IQ tests.
Asian Americans more intelligent than African Americans. 6
Lecture 2 ▯ Measuring Intelligence
▯ Studying Individual Differences
Most psychological research aims to understand the “average” human, sometimes called
Some areas try to understand why and how some humans differ, this research is called
Individual Difference Work.
Some societies believe that more education citizens lead to a better country and stronger
more prosperous society. (ex. Blackberry a Canadian invention)
Ability to measure intelligence may be beneficial is a couple of ways:
1) Allows you to access whether certain educational methods are better than others.
2) May allow one to tailor a child’s education to their current abilities.
Anything that you can measure follows a normal distribution, the majority have normal
measurement, with a few above or below the norm. 7
Sir Francis Galton, Darwin’s cousin.
Measured intelligence as the speed of information processing.
First to claim to be measuring intelligence.
▯ Interpreting Test Sores
In order to make sense of an individuals score must first give test to many people in order to find
mean and standard deviation for the test, this is called establishing the norms.
Often it is necessary to acquire such norms separately for different age groups so score can be
compared to individuals of the same age.
Issue is comparison may not be from same cultural group.
Lecture 3 ▯ Where Does Intelligence Come From
▯ Intelligence as Evidence of Intelligent Design
Humans feel okay with what we do to animals because there is a critical difference; we are
superior and should be treated better.
Use intelligence as an example of intelligent design.
▯ Is Intelligence Even a Single Thing?
Often use term intelligence as a single characteristic a person possesses.
▯ The Role of Genetics
Could be genetic traits for intelligence.
▯ The Role of the Environment
Putting children in the right environment are going to influence intelligence.
Put into an environment filled with reading and science talk for example child will pick up on this.
Contrast genetics as a factor for intelligence. 8
Stereotype Threat – When people are aware of a stereotype surrounding their social group,
they may fear being reduced to that stereotype.
▯ Genetics Vs. Environment
“Bright” and “Dull”
Good at something = bright, not so good at something = dull
Artificial breeding of dull rats together and bright rats together.
Offspring of dull rats make more mistakes and offspring of bright rats make fewer mistakes.
Chapter 10 L ▯ ife Span Development
Baby’s cries are characteristic of the accent of their native tongue.
Developmental Phycology – Is the study of change of human physiology, cognitive, social,
and behavioral characteristics across the life span.
▯ Methods of Measuring Development
Psychologists usually rely of a few different designs to measure how psychological traits and
abilities change over time.
1) Crosssectional Design – Is used to measure and compare people at different ages
at a given point in time.
Advantage of convenience.
2) Longitudinal Design – Follow development of the same set of individuals though
time (can last decades).
Costly and time consuming, participants may quit.
Developmental studies determine what is “normal” for a given age; the onset on language and at
what time memory will decline.
Determine whether an individual may have a problem that needs to be addresses. 9
Rapid changes are explained by a model that views development as a process of abrupt
transitions in physical and mental skills, followed by slower more gradual changes.
Pattern happens in a series of changes.
Adults tend to change at a slower steadier pace, called Continuous change.
Interaction between genetics and environment determine developmental processes.
▯ The Importance of Sensitive Period
Sensitive Period – Window of time during which exposure to a specific environment is needed
for normal development of a specific ability.
Longterm deficits can form, such as language inputs, if missing during sensitive period.
▯ Fertilization and Gestation
An individual’s development does not begin at birth but throughout pregnancy (gestation).
Germinal Stage The first stage in prenatal development that spans from conception to 2
Begin with fertilization with the formation of a zygote.
Blastocysts move along the fallopian tubes and are implanted in the uterus.
Embryonic Stage Spans from 2 weeks to 8 weeks.
Embryo starts to develop major physical structures; heart, nervous system, arm, legs, hands, and
Fetal Stage – Spans fro 8 weeks to birth.
Skeletal, organs, and nervous system become more developed and specialized.
▯ Fetal Brain Development
The beginning of the human brain can be seen during the embryonic stage.
Preterm Infants Born 36 weeks or earlier (37 weeks normal pregnancy).
May result in some cognitive and physical problems, which can be reduced/eliminated with
▯ Nutrition, Teratogens, and Fetal Development 10
Nutrition is critical for normal fetal development.
Pregnant women require a 20% increase in energy intake.
Eat foods high in calcium and protein.
Teratogens Substances, such as drugs, that is capable of producing physical defects.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – Involve abnormalities is mental functioning, growth, and facial
Smoking can increase the risk of miscarriage or death during infancy.
30% chance of premature birth.
Infant Death Syndrome An unexpected and not directly explainable death of a child
younger than 1.
▯ Sensory and Motor Abilities of Newborns
Can see 1215 inches away at birth
Have 20/20 vision by 6 months.
• The Rooting Reflex
Elicited by stimulation to the corner of the mouth, causing the infant to position
themselves toward stimulation and make sucking motions.
Helps infant begin feeding directly after birth.
• The Moro Reflex
Also known as the “startle” reflex occurs when infants lose support of their head, they
reach their arms outwards and inwards in a hugging motion.
May be a protective reflex.
• The Grasping Reflex
Elicited by stimulating the infants palm.
▯ Physical Change in Infancy and Childhood
Infant abilities to move occur in stages – from crawling, to standing, and finally to walking.
Structure of brain are present at birth but they develop into adulthood.
In childhood there is junctions between connecting nerve cells.
The formation of billions of synapses (space between neurons) through a process called
synaptogenesis occurs through infancy and childhood 11
Synaptic Pruning also occurs, which is the loss of weak nerve cell connections
accelerating brain development.
▯ Cognitive Changes: Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory
Cognitive Development – The study of changes in memory, thought, and reasoning
processes that occur throughout life.
Jean Piaget was interested in explaining how different ways of thinking and reasoning developed.
According to his knowledge accumulates by 2 processes:
1) Assimilation – Children add new information but interpret based on what they already
2) Accommodation – Children modify their belief structures based on experience.
Piaget’s observations revealed that cognitive development was not a long continuous process, but
they occurred in 4 stages.
Concrete operational stage
Formal operational stage
▯ The Sensorimotor Stage
Birth to 2 years
Period in which infants thinking and understanding is based on sensory experiences and actions
performed on objects
Only understand what they can see and feel at a given moment.
May not understand that an object continues to exist when it is removed from sight.
Object Permanence – The ability to understand that an object exists even when they cannot
see or touch it.
▯ The Preoperational Stage
2 to 7 years old
Characterized by understanding of symbols, pretend play, and masters the concept of
Conservation – The knowledge that the amount of the object is not related to the physical
arrangement and appearance. 12
If 14 pennies were arranged in separate rows (7 per row) the child would think that the row with
more spaces between the pennies contained more.
▯ The Concrete Operational Stage
Conservation one of the main skills marking transition to concrete optional stage.
7 to 11 years old
Children develop skills in using and manipulating numbers as well as logical thinking.
Can classify objects based on size, value, and shape.
Recognize that is X is larger that Y, and Y is larger than Z, than X must therefore with larger than
▯ The Formal Operational Stage
11 to adulthood
Involves the development of cognitive processes such as abstract reasoning and hypothetical
Habituation – Refers to a decrease in responding with repeated exposure to an event
Dishabituation – An increase in responsiveness with the presentation of a new stimulus.
▯ Complementary Approaches to Piaget
Piaget’s theories have generated controversy in the decades since they were purposed.
Piaget underestimated the abilities of infants and their rate of development.
He overlooked sociocultural and biological elements of cognitive growth.
Zone of Proximal Development – Development is ideal when a child attempts skills that
are JUST beyond what they can do, child has guidance from a guardian.
Scaffolding – Is the approach to teaching in which the teacher matches the guidance of the
▯ Types of Attachment
Attachment – In an enduring emotional bond formed between individuals.
Motivation to seek out others for close physical and phychological comfort.
Attachment is important to survival.
Nourishment is a small part of the process of forming attachments. 13
Harry Harlow sought to determine just how strong the need for attachment was compared to food
When deprived of maternal care monkey clinged to cloth wire “mother” monkey
for comfort rather that wire “mother” monkey which had food.
Suggested that physical contact rather than food forms the basis for motherinfant bonds.
2 categories of attachment:
1) Secure Attachment – The child may or may not cry when mother leaves the room and it
left with a stranger.
2) Insecure Attachment
Disorganized – The child does not have a consistent pattern of behavior when mother
leaves and returns.
Resistant – The child is upset when mother leaves, and mad at her when she returns.
Avoidant – The child is upset when the mother leaves and does not seek contact when
▯ Social Cognition
Young children sometimes described as:
Egocentric – Meaning that they perceive and interpret the word in terms of self.
Theory of Mind – The ability to recognize the thoughts, beliefs, and expectations of others
and understand these can be different then your own.
“Putting yourself in someone else’s shoes”
Children may find nearly impossible to do.
▯ Temperament: A Glimpse into Personality
Infants differ in Temperament – Their general emotional reactivity, root from which several
aspects of adult personality grow.
▯ Physical Changes in Adolescence
Puberty – Marks the physical transition from childhood to adolescence, culminating in
Starts at 11 in girls and 13 in boys.
Caused by hormonal activity.
Menarche – The onset on menstruation
Spermarche – The first ejaculation of sperm. Nocturnal emission (wet dream).
Hormone surges in adolescence are associated with negative moods and problems adjusting. 14
▯ Cognitive Development: Thinking and Moral Reasoning
At about 12 years of age young adults show significant improvements in abilities to use logic and
Develop the ability to think scientifically and view problems from multiple perspectives
Prefrontal Cortex controls decision making process and it still developing in adolescence.
Explain poor decision making at times.
▯ Moral Development
In adolescence beliefs about what’s right and wrong become more complex.
Can be a lot of space between the 2 alternatives.
There are 3 stages of Moral Reasoning
1) Preconventional Morality – Self interest in seeking out reward or avoiding punishment.
Ex. Won’t do something in fear of being punished.
2) Conventional Morality – Social convention and rules as guides for appropriate moral
Ex. Won’t do something because it’s illegal.
3) Postconventional Morality – Considers rules and laws as relative (right or wrong).
Ex. Choosing to save 5 lives rather than saving just 1.
▯ Identity Forming During Adolescence
Identity – A selfimage and a perception of one’s unique and individual characteristics.
Adolescents may experience numerous identity crises.
Exploration of different identities.
Identity Statues – The processes and outcome of identity development.
4 possible identity statuses
1) Identity Achievement – Consideration of different identities followed by commitment to a
2) Identity Diffusion – Refusal to commit to an identity and respond to identity crisis.
3) Identity Foreclosure – Do not experience identity crisis and commit to roles and values
passed down from parents.
4) Identity Moratorium – Prolonged experimentation with different identities.
▯ Peer Group and Social Status 15
Sociometric Popularity – Individuals who are well known and respected and who display
low levels of aggression.
Perceived Popularity – Individuals who are perceived as popular but are not necessarily well
May use aggression to get popularity.
▯ Physical Changes in Adulthood
No biological event that marks the transition from adolescence to young adulthood.
One major change that occurs when women are about 50 years old is menopause, the
termination of menstrual cycle and reproductive.
Sex drive, and estrogen decrease.
Males don’t experience a physical change, but testosterone and sex drive decrease.
Dementia – Refers to a set of symptoms including disruption of mental functioning, memory
loss, and poor judgment and decisionmaking.
Nearly 10% of people who have dementia have a type called Alzheimer’s.
Alzheimer’s – A degenerative and terminal condition resulting in severe damage to the entire
Is a build up of proteins that clump together in the spaces between neurons.
Authoritative Parenting – Expression of warmth and responsiveness to children.
Authoritarian Parenting – Emphasize excessive control over children and less expression
Indulgentpermissive Parenting – Are warm but do not attempt to control children.
IndifferentUninvolved Parenting – Show neither warmth or control towards children.
Emotional WellBeing – Experience of both positive and negative emotions that is measured
by life satisfaction, happiness and the balance inbetween. 16
Lecture 4 D ▯ evelopment: The Early Years
The study of how our humanity develops from children to adults, and adults until our elderly years.
No other animal is born so helpless and dependent on parents as humans are.
Physical development occurs prior to birth and continues long after.
Physical dependency sets the stage for social development, development that occurs
throughout our lifespan.
Humans have very few children and care for the deeply, turtles for example have many offspring
and do not raise them (most end of dying because of this).
The more children you have the fewer will survive.
▯ Methods and Terminology
1) Prenatal ▯ 38 weeks of pregnancy 17
Zygote (first 2 weeks)
Embryonic (28 weeks)
Fetal stage (last 7 months)
2) Infant/Toddle (birth – 2)
3) Adolescence (hard to define) When one an adult differs by culture.
4) Adulthood and Old Age
▯ Prenatal Development
Zygote Stage, single cell begins dividing and differentiating eventually forming 200 different
kinds of cells (blood, nerve, bone cells etc.) all with the same DNA.
Embryonic Stage, when the hearts starts to beat. Sexual differentiation also occurs. Critical
stage for avoidance of teratogens (cocaine, alcohol).
Fetal Stage, when bones start to form, and the baby really starts to grow.
Begin life as female’s, importance of testosterone and androgens in embryonic stage.
▯ Infancy – Motor Development
Hardwired behaviors not learned after birth, thumb sucking.
Child born knowing mothers voice.
Some children walk by a year old, some take about a year and a half.
Depends on environment, lots of things happening around children helps to develop
▯ Perceptual Development
Startled at sounds
Starts to laugh and smile
Starts to learn words
Can say own name, but doesn’t know who they are. 18
Lecture 5 ▯ Development: Cognitive Development
How we change cognitively.
Babies born with some knowledge and memories.
▯ The Development of Thought
Still working in progress, will be a different person years from know.
Do things we wouldn’t normally do now.
Baby learns early on that we live in a responsive world, if baby cries mother will respond.
▯ Jean Piaget
The notion of maturation and the stage like sequence of cognitive maturation (prerequisites).
Interested in education
It’s or job to teach ourselves, teachers don’t do anything.
The mind develops in stages, can’t move to the next stage until you have masters the previous
one needed to move on.
▯ Piaget’s Stages of Development 19
1) Sensorimotor Period – Cognition at this stage is closely tied to external stimulation and
understanding characteristics of objects.
Child thinks the world is only what they see/hear.
Child has to learn there is more to the world than they can see or hear at a given
moment; object permanence, things exist even when you can’t see it.
Learn at about 2 years old
2) Preoperational Period – Child begins learning how to think logically and how to use
About 27 years old
Start to learn words
Problems with conservation, can’t tell which has more ( think taller glass has
more juice that a shorter, wider glass, when they both have the same amount).
3) Period of Concrete Operations – Increased ability to preform logical operations and
emergence of empathy.
See something with your own eyes so it must be true.
4) Period of Formal Operations – Children begin to learn how to preform abstract logical
See something from someone else’s perspective.
▯ Post Piaget
Recent evidence suggests that Piaget may have underestimated the abilities of children. 20
▯ Lecture 6 – Social Development and Parenting
▯ Real life Social Networking
Humans have gotten as far as we have because we are social animals, we want relationship.
This desire for social relations is present at birth.
Sucking – for food and comfort
Cuddling – Comfort (skin to skin contact)
Looking – Eye to eye contact initiates interactions
Smiling – The best reward of being a parent?
Crying – Teaches parents through negative reinforcement
Mechanisms children have for social interaction.
Interested in how attachment forms between infant and its
Monkey in experiment chose comfort over food.
Wire mother provided food and cloth mother
▯ Social interactions in Infants
Humans acquire a great deal of social information from nonverbal cues provided by others.
Face is a major source for nonverbal cues.
Still face experiments show how important these cues are.
Not reacting the way (not at all) you normally would to a baby.
▯ The Nature and Quality of Attachment
Stranger Anxiety Anxious and/or fearful responses (crying, clinging) in the presence of
Separation Anxiety – Anxious and/or fearful responses that occur when the caregiver leaves
Mary Ainsworth tried to come up with procedures to categorize relationships between parent and
Procedure called strange situation, places child under some stress to find quality of
attachment to parent(s). 22
Chapter 11 – Motivation and Emotion
Motivation – Concerns physiological and psychological processes underlying the initiation of
behaviors that direct organisms to specific goals.
Homeostasis – The body’s physiological processes that allows it to maintain consistent internal
states in response to the environment.
Drives – Physiological triggers that tell us that we are deprived of something and cause us to
seek it out (ex. Food)
Incentives – (or goals) Stimuli we seek to reduce drives.
▯ Physiological Aspects of Hunger
Satiation – The point in a meal where we are no longer motivated to eat.
“On” and “off” switch involved in hunger.
“On switch”, lateral hypothalamus
“Off switch”, ventromedial hypothalamus
Lateral hypothalamus stimulated by electricity in rats caused them to start eating.
▯ Psychological Aspects of Hunger 23
In some situations food can be a more powerful reinforce than highly addictive drugs.
“Sugar fix” imply that an addiction to candy bars is comparable to an addiction to drugs.
Taste is a powerful force behind motivation to eat.
▯ Tastes, Texture, and Eating
If the only factors in our motivation to eat were for calories and essential nutrients a few simple
foods would be consumed daily.
Taste and variety motivate decisions about what to eat.
Most popular foods are the most dietary fat and sugar.
We crave fats because we have receptors on the tongue that are sensitive to fat content
Fatty foods stimulate the pleasure sensing area of the brain.
Touch receptors in the mouth detect textures of the food and relay information to the orbitofrontal
▯ Food Variety and Eating
Bottomless Bowl of soup.
Volunteers asked to eat soup until they were full.
Tube refilled bowl unknowingly to the volunteers.
Stopped consuming on average over 70% more than participants
that knowingly refilled their bowl.
They did not feel more satiated or believe that they had eaten
more than the other participants.
Unit Bias – The tendency to assume that the unit of proportion is an appropriate amount to
▯ Eating and Social Context
Eating is more than just a physical drive; there are social motives as well.
The presence of other people can either increase or decrease consumption of food.
Depends on the situation.
1) Social facilitation: Eating more – Hosts may encourage you to eat two or three
2) Impression management: Eating less – Sometime people are self conscious
and control their behavior so that others will see them in a certain way.
3) Modeling: Eating whatever they eat – See others as a “model” and eat whatever
they eat restraining their eating.
▯ Eating Disorder 24
Obesity – Positive balance of energy, energy intake exceeds energy expenditure.
Weightloss difficult, drive to eat and incentive value of food increase when deprived of it.
Obese people have higher metabolic activity in regions of the brain that respond to sensations in
the mouth, tongue and lips.
Anorexia Nervosa – Eating disorder that involves 1) Self starvation 2) fear of weight gain and
distorted view of self 3) denial of serious consequences of low weight.
Bulimia Nervosa Eating disorder that is characterized by periods of food deprivation, binge
eating, and purging.
Males less prone to these problems.
▯ Sexual Motivation
Libido The motivation for sexual activity and pleasure.
Generally believed that men are more interested in sex than women.
▯ Human Sexual behavior: Psychological and Biological Influences
Sex frequently without an end goal of reproduction.
Sex for reasons other than reproduction rare in nonhuman species.
Bonobos and dolphins have sex for no reason.
▯ Psychological Measures of Sexual Motivation
37% of the men he interviewed had at least one homosexual experience resulting in orgasm.
Only 13% in females.
Published his finding in what it known as “Kinsey reports”.
Questionnaire method of studying sexual motivation has continued.
Common reasons to have sex:
1) For physical reasons
2) To attain a goal.
a. To get a raise.
3) For emotional reasons
4) Because of insecurity
a. Felt obligated to 25
▯ Biological Measures of Sex
Sexual Response Cycle – Describes the phases of physiological change during sexual
Applies to both females and males.
There are differences between sexes in how stages are experienced and their duration.
Refractory Period – A time period during which erection and orgasm are not physically
▯ Sexual Dysfunction
Erectile Dysfunction (ED) – In males. The inability to maintain or achieve an erection.
Viagra enhances blood flow to genitals.
For females there can be a lack of arousal or painful intercourse.
Treated with estrogen replacement therapy.
May come from depression or anxiety.
▯ Sex and Technology
Social networking common places for sexual expression
Porn, meeting other for sex.
Cybersex – The use of internet for sending sexual messages or images to a partner.
▯ Sexual Orientation: Biology and Environment
Sexual Orientation – A consistent preference for sexual relation with member or opposite,
same, or both sexes.
A person may have a sexual orientation but never have had sexual contact.
Homosexuality in males may be explained by having a dominate mother and weak father or being
seduced by older siblings.
▯ Sexual Orientation and the Brain 26
Brains of homosexual and heterosexual males compares showed that homosexual had a smaller
Could have been because of environmental factors.
Testosterone – A hormone that is involved in the development of sexual characteristics and the
motivation of sexual behavior.
Found in both females and males, males have more though.
Sexual orientation may be influenced by the testosterone levels during prenatal development.
Men with more older brothers tend to be gay.
Mothers may have an inhibition of testosterone causing the babies brain to be feminized.
▯ Social and Achievement Motivation
Motivation entails meeting complex social and personal needs.
▯ Need to Belong
Abraham Maslow, “Hierarchy of Needs”
Physiological motives that must be satisfied before all others are considered.
1) Physiological needs – hunger, thirst
2) Safety Needs – Feel secure and safe
3) Belongingness and love needs – To be with others, be accepted and belong
4) Esteem needs – To achieve, gain approval
5) Cognitive needs – to know, understand, and explore
6) Aesthetic needs – order and beauty
7) Self actualization needs – To find self fulfillment and realize potential.
▯ Belonging is a Need, Not a Want
Need to Belong – Sometime called affiliation motivation. The motivation to maintain
relationships that involve pleasant feelings.
Feelings part of permanent relationships.
Fundamental in the same way that food an shelter are needs.
Psychologists have found that social connectedness is a good indicator of overall health.
Terror Management Theory – Perspective that the human fear of mortality motivates
behaviors to preserves belonging and selfesteem.
Mortality Salience – An increased awareness of death. 27
▯ Achievement Motivation
Achievement Motivation – The drive to preform at high levels to accomplish significant
goals. Sometime involves a need to compete.
Mastery Motives – Reflect a desire to understand or overcome a challenge. “ I want to learn
Performance Motives – Geared towards gaining rewards or public recognition. “ I just want a
Approach Goals – Incentives such as a praise or financial reward.
Avoidance Goals – Unpleasant outcomes such as shame or embarrassment.
Emotion – A psychological experience involving 1) thoughts and experiences with 2)
accompanying patterns of physical arousal and 3) characteristic behavioral expressions.
▯ Biology of Emotion
Physiology of emotion involves both the brain and the rest of the body.
Many of our emotions involve the autonomic nervous system (ANS).
Division of the ANS, sympathetic nervous system prepares body for stress and increases energy
In contrast the parasympathetic restores the body to normal conditions.
▯ The Emotional Brain: Perception and Action
Limbic system is critical to emotional processing.
It includes the hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala and various cortical regions.
Fast Pathway – Body is readied for action BEFORE the stimulus is fully perceived and
Slow Pathway – Conscious recognition of the stimulus and situation.
▯ The JamesLange and CannonBard Theories of Emotion
JamesLange Theory of Emotion – Physiological reactions to stimuli (heart racing)
precede emotional experience (fear). 28
CannonBard Theory of Emotion – Emotions (fear, happiness) occur simultaneously with
Facial Feedback Hypothesis – Forming facial expressions elicit specific corresponding
Smiling should make things more pleasant.
Not all emotions affected by facial feedback.
TwoFactor Theory of Emotion – Emotional experiences composed of physiological
responses (1 component) and the cognitive (2 component) labels we give them.
▯ The Role of Culture in Emotion
Humans show similar emotional expressions regardless of their language and background.
Emotional Dialects – Variations across cultures in how common emotions are expressed.
Display Rules – Expectations of when it is appropriate to show a certain emotion. 29
Lecture 7 Emotion
▯ The Relevance of Emotion
Emotion clearly influences us in a powerful psychological way.
To some extent, emotion is an enemy of rational thought and rational thought ability to guide
What motivates also tends to “move us” emotionally.
Some sort of association between the two, though not completely understood.
3 aspects of emotion:
▯ Conditioned Emotional Response
Fear something you wouldn’t normally fear when paired with a stimulus that does frighten you.
Eventually fear it when not paired with stimulus (controlled response).
Claim is that a lot of our emotions are condition.
Parts of the brain involved ▯ Hippocampus and Amygdala.
Post traumatic stress disorder.
▯ The Control of Emotional Responding
The role of serotonin with respect to moderating aggression and perhaps emotional control in
Role of the ventral prefrontal cortex with respect to emotional regulation.
Hide or control, feel on the inside but don’t show on the outside.
▯ Emotional Reactions and Moral Judgment
Society has come up with “proper behavior”.
Morals and ethics
Facial expressions seem to be hardwired into use, not learned. 30
Lecture 8 – Motivation
▯ The Concept of Homeostasis
System variable (temperature, or hunger).
Detector variable (current temperature, or level of hunger).
Correctional mechanism (regulatory behaviors).
▯ Drive Reduction Hypothesis
What drives you to do something?
Does not provide a theory to human behavior.
▯ Optimum Level Theory
Optimum performance, not to high a level of performance and not to low.
Issue with motivation not what makes you do something but what makes you KEEP doing
▯ Hierarchy of Needs
Need to complete first step on pyramid to move on the next and so on. 31
Lecture 9 – Sex, Aggression and Eating
▯ Three Motivations Relevant Research Contexts
▯ Sexual Hormones and Behavior
Androgens and testosterone have organizational and activational effects on males
Testosterone decreases with age, resulting in a decrease of interest in sex.
Giving men testosterone affects sexual motivation not orientation.
Homosexual men will still want homosexual sex.
For nonhuman primates only initiate in sexual activity around ovulation.
Estradiol and progesterone levels high.
For humans (and dolphins) not the case, there is a link between hormone levels and sexual desire
▯ Sexual Orientation
Sexual orientation determined before adolescence and sexual activity.
Most homosexuals have engaged in heterosexual experiences but found them unrewarding.
Chapter 12 – Personality 32
Personality – A characteristic pattern of thinking, interacting, and reacting that is unique to each
individual and remains almost consistent over time and situations.
Idiographic Approach – Focus on creating detailed descriptions of individuals and their
unique personality characteristics.
Focus on rare types of individuals (serial killers).
Nomothetic Approach – Examines personality in large groups with the aim of making
generalizations about personality structure.
Difference between idiographic and nomothetic is sometimes unclear because they share
▯ The Trait Perspective
Personality Traits – Labels applied to specific attributes of personality such as “shy” and
Can understand individuals and what makes them alike or sets them apart based on how well a
trait describes them.
Factor Analysis – Reveals statistical similarities among a wide variety of items.
Personality descriptors have similar meanings and are grouped together in a cluster referred to as
▯ The Five Factor Model
Factor Model – Trait based approach to personality measurement the includes:
1) Openness – Creative, artistic, nonconforming.
2) Conscientiousness – Organized, reliable, ambitious.
3) Extraversion – Talkative, social, affectionate.
4) Agreeableness – Trusting, supportive goodnatured.
5) Neuroticism – Worried, insecure, anxietyprone.
▯ Personality Traits Over the Life Span
Psychologists have long pondered weather personality traits are fixed or if they change over the
Within the first few months of life, infants do show the beginnings of personality characteristics.
Consistency between temperament and personality does not mean that personality cannot
▯ Personality Traits and States
Trait labels may go a long way toward describing what people are like.
Behaviors are also determined by situational factors and context.
State – A temporary physical or psychological engagement that influences behavior.
Ex. Normally calm person getting angry with a server for poor service.
4 general aspects of situations that are more likely to influence behavior:
2) Associations (being with friends, alone)
4) Subjective (mad, sick, drunk, happy)
Contribute to our state and interact with personality traits to determine behavior.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI2) – A multiple question
personality inventory that is used to characterize both normal personalities and profiles that fit into
various psychological disorders.
Discrimination between “normal” and “abnormal” characteristics.
Used to measure abnormal personality traits.
▯ Other Methods for Measuring Personality.
Two additional methods of measuring personality
Interviews create an individual personality profile.
Behavioral assessments observe an individual in a specific context or situation.
Reciprocal Determinism – The idea that behavior, internal factors (personal), and external
factors interact to determine one another and that personalities are based on interactions between
these 3 aspects.
▯ Culture and Personality
We tend to have specific adjectives we use to describe people from broad regions of the world.
Stereotypes we may hold about people from other regions may be due to situational state factors
rather than differences in personality.
Ex. New Yorkers more aggressive because of the highly populated and busy urban area. 34
▯ Cultural Variations in the Big Five
Translations of the Big Five personality were validated across cultures.
We are united in having at least five of the same personality characteristics.
Numerous crosscultural differences in average personality ratings.
▯ Cultural Unique Personality Traits
What if members of other cultures have more than five factors?
People of other cultures may also have unique personality characteristics that are undetected by
the studies we do.
Individualism – Refers to the view that personal identity, goal, and attributes are of greater
value than group identity, goals, and attributes.
Collectivism – Places greater value on defining the self in terms of group membership and
▯ Twin Studies
Twin studies have found that identical twins show a stronger correlation for each personality trait
than fraternal twins.
Environment contributes to variations in personalities.
Heredity plays an important role in personality but so does parenting and the environment.
Serotonin activity has been found on chromosome 17.
May affect personality.
▯ The Role of Evolution in Personality
Evolutionary psychologists speculate that jealousy is a trait that evolved for guarding mates.
One compelling argument for the evolution of personality is the presence of personality traits in
numerous nonhuman species.
Five personality traits have been found in a diversity of species. 35
Assortative Mating – Choosing sexual partners who are similar to the individual doing the
Opposites don’t always attract.
▯ Early Approaches to the Biology of Personality
Theory of Humorism, the body consisted of 4 humors – blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow
Link personality characteristics with specific brain regions.
Those with more active left hemisphere tend to have more positive emotions.
Right hemisphere tends to be more anxious.
Unreasonable to suppose that we could ever point out a single region to be the center of any
single personality trait.
▯ Psychodynamic Perspective
Psychodynamic Theories – Focuses on how personality arises through complex
interactions involving conscious and unconscious processes that occur early in development
through to adult hood.
Began with Sigmund Freud
▯ The Structure of Personality
Freud hypothesizes that the human psyche consists of multiple, sometimes conflicting, processes.
The id, ego, and superego
Id – Represents a collection of basic biological drives including those directed towards sex and
Fueled by an energy called libido.
Operates according to the pleasure principle.
Ego – The component of personality that keeps the impulses of the id in check.
Operates according to the reality principle.
Superego – An inner voice we hear when we shame ourselves for acting inappropriately and
praise ourselves for doing something good.
Thought to develop during upbringing.
Influence by the id is present at birth, whereas the superego must develop with experience.
Once the 3 components are in place they operate simultaneously. 36
▯ Unconscious Processes and Psychodynamics
Behavior is controlled by both unconscious and conscious processes.
The unconscious mind includes impulses and drives that we are not directly aware of.
The conscious mind are thoughts that we are aware of.
▯ Defense Mechanisms
Psychodynamic view of personality, the ego uses defense mechanisms to reduce anxiety caused
by urges of impulses from the id.
▯ Psychosexual Development
Personality develop through a series of stages which occur mostly within the first 5 years of life.
1) Oral Stage – Pleasure derived from actions involving the mouth.
2) Anal Stage – Stimulation relating to bowel movements is the source of pleasure.
3) Phallic Stage – Children begin to show interest in their own genitals.
4) Latent Stage – Libido is dormant.
5) Genital Stage Marked by the onset of puberty, continues throughout adulthood.
Show interest in mature, sexual relationships.
Fixation – Individual becomes preoccupied with obtaining the pleasure associated with
a particular stage.
▯ Exploring the Unconscious With Projective Tests
Freud employed Dream Analysis – view dreams as direct links to the unconscious mind.
Projective Tests – Personality tests in which ambiguous images are
presented to an individual to elicit responses that reflect unconscious desires or
How an individual describes the stimulus is thought to be a projection of their
thoughts and personality.
Rorschach Inkblot Test – Subjects are asked to describe what they see
on the inkblot. 37
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – Asks respondents to tell a story about a series of 31
pictures involving ambiguous interpersonal situations.
▯ Alternatives to the Psychodynamic Approach
Analytical Psychology Describes personality as it relates to what are called unconscious
Archetypes are mental representations of personality figures, relationships, and experience.
Founded by Carl Jung.
Unconscious mind also harnesses creativity.
Collective Unconscious – A collection of memories that can be traced to our ancestral past.
Inferiority Complex – An abnormal personality that results from struggling with feelings of
inferiority in ones social environment.
“ Hero” archetype is a universal notion of the individual who embodies good and strength.
Lecture 10 – Personality: Breaking Down Who You Are
▯ Types Vs. Traits
Most people speak in terms of “personality types”
Psychologists think it makes for sense to refer to them as “personality traits”.
▯ Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory
Categorized traits into 3 levels
1) Cardinal Traits – Traits that dominate an individual’s whole live, to the point where the
individual knows specifically about this trait.
2) Central Traits – General characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality.
3) Secondary Traits – Sometimes related to attitudes or preferences and often only
appear in certain situations. 38
▯ The Dark Triad
The “bad boy”
Lecture 11 – Personality Development: The Psychodynamic View
▯ Sigmund Freud
Trained psychologist and an expert in observation.
Fascinated by ailments that seemed to have physiological cause.
Believed that all behavior was motivated by desires
Could be conscious or unconscious desires.
The manner in which internal energies are released determined by our personality.
1) Id – Instinct
2) Ego – Reason 39
3) Superego – Conscience
▯ The Id
The dark inaccessible part of our personality.
Instinctual needs subject to the pleasure principle.
Pleasure Principle – The desire to obtain immediate gratification.
The id also linked to “Libido”, the primary source of instinctual motivation for all psychic forces.
▯ The Superego
Charged with the task of making you the sort of person that will fit well into society, or the person
you would like to be.
EgoIdeal – The internalized notion of what society values in a person, what it means to be
“good”, “liked” and “appreciated”.
Conscience – The internalization of the rules and restrictions of society punishes wrong doings
with feelings of guilt.
▯ The Ego
Attempts to find ways to satisfy the desires of the id without invoking guilt from superego.
Defers the reality principle, the tendency to satisfy that ids desires in realistic ways.
Sexual and aggressive drives hardest to satisfy given that society tries to control them.
Explains why psychodynamic theory emphasizes them.
Manifest Content Refers to the actual storyline of a dream.
Freud assumed was a superego cleansed version of latent content.
Latent Content – Reflects the actual noncleansed (id driven) motivation of a dream.
Dreams provide a potential “road to the unconscious”.
▯ The Psychsexual Theory of Personality Development 40
Freud assumed that we passed through psychsexual stages as we develop, stages associated
with sexual (sensual) parts of our body.
Called erongenous zones.
Personality issues arise when we don’t pass through a stage completely, said to be fixated if this
Fixations do not necessarily prevent us from going on to other phases, but they may show through
our behaviours thereby altering adult personalities.
1) Oral (02) – Infant achieves gratification through oral activities (feeding, sucking on
2) Anal (23) – Learns to respond to some demands of society (bowel and bladder
3) Phallic (37) – Child learns to realize difference between males and females and
become aware of sexuality.
4) Latency (711) – Child continues development but sexual urges quite.
5) Genital (11 adult) – Learns to deal maturely with opposite sex.
▯ Mothers and Fathers
Oedipus Complex – Boys form close bonds with mother and become jealous or fearful of
Electra Complex – Girls become close with fathers and envy mothers. 41
Chapter 13 – Psychological Disorders
Medical Model – Uses understanding of medical conditions to think about psychological
Varies by culture, someone in North America might be diagnosed with schizophrenia if they saw
hallucinations, but somewhere else might be thought to be possessed by evil spirits.
▯ Defining Abnormal Psychology
Abnormal Psychology – The psychological study of mental illness.
Maladaptive Behaviours A behaviour that hinders a persons ability to function (at work,
school, relationships etc.)
Criteria for maladaptive behaviours:
1) Behaviour must distress ones self or others
2) Impairs ability to function
3) Increases risk of injury, death, or legal problems
▯ Diagnosing Psychological Disorders 42
Psychologists and psychiatrists rely on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for
Mental Illness (DSMIV) – Manual that establishes criteria for the diagnosis of mental
More than 350 disorders are identified in the DSMIV
Identify a likely cause, the psychological experience that follows, and the time course for
Does have limitations – treats most symptoms in an either/or fashion, either you have the
symptom or you don’t.
Etiology The origins or causes of symptoms and the prognosis, how the symptoms with persist
or change over time.
▯ Categorical Vs. Dimensional Views of Disorders
Dimensional View – Consist of typical thoughts and behaviours except they are more severe
and longer lasting than usual.
May occur in inappropriate contexts
Ex. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Categorical View Regards different mental conditions as separate types.
Not just extreme versions of normal thoughts, something all together different.
Can’t have “partial” form of disorder (ex. Down syndrome)
▯ The Insanity Defense
Insanity is a legal concept and it not directly related to psychological diagnosis and treatment.
Insanity Defense The legal strategy of claiming that a defendant was unable to differentiate
between right and wrong what the criminal act was committed.
Is a rare occurrence, used in less than 1% of federal cases.
“Not guilty by reason of insanity”, known as the M’Naghten rule.
Stigma – Include negative stereotypes about what it means to have a psychological disorder.
May lead to discrimination, and alienation.
Learning about ones own diagnosis might increase positive emotions during treatment.
▯ Defining and Classifying Personality Disorders 43
Personality Disorders Unusual patterns of behaviour for ones culture that are maladaptive,
distressing to oneself and or others, and resistant to change.
Some people feel no empathy towards others.
Become rapidly attached to someone only to reject him or her.
May apply to anyone at some point. Actual disorders are extreme and persistent cases.
▯ Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Characterized by intense extremes between
positive and negative emotions.
Tendency to think in allornone terms.
No matter the type of relationship they have there will always be periods of conflict.
Fear of abandonment
▯ Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) – Characterized by an inflated sense of self,
an intense need for attention, as well as intense selfdoubt and fear of abandonment.
Likely to engage in academic dishonesty, feeling of entitlement makes them feel no remorse
▯ Histrionic Personality Disorder
Histrionic Personality Disorder – Characterized by excessive attention seeking and
Drawing people in with flirtatious, provocative behaviour.
▯ Antisocial Personality Disorder
Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) – Habitual pattern of willingly violating others
personal rights with very little sign of empathy or remorse.
Physically and verbally abusive
Also known as “psychopath”
Men are more likely to be diagnosed
Under reactive to stress
Conduct Disorders – Often precursors to psychopathy 44
Adults and children with psychopathy or conduct disorders have difficulty learning tasks that
require decision making.
▯ Biological Factors to Personality Disorders
A number of specific genes seem to contribute to emotional instability through serotonin systems
in the brain.
Unique activity in the limbic system and frontal lobes – regions that are associated with emotional
responses and impulse control.
▯ Comorbidity and Personality Disorders
Comorbidity The presence of two disorders simultaneously, or the presence of a second
disorder that affects the one being treated.
Substance abuse is often comorbid with personality disorders
Intertwining presents a challenge for treatment.
▯ Dissociative Identity Disorder
Unaware of what’s going on around you.
Difficulty determining whether an event really happened.
Dissociative Disorder – Characterized by a split between conscious awareness from feeling,
memory, and identity.
1) Dissociative Fugue – A period of autobiographical memory loss (forget past memories of life).
May develop new identity in new location with no recollection of the past.
2) Depersonalized Disorder – Belief that one has changed in a way that no longer makes them
3) Dissociative Amnesia – Severe loss of memory, usually from a specific stressful event, when no
biological cause for amnesia is present.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) – (multiple personality disorder) A person claims
that their personality has split into one or more personalities called “alters”.
Alters may have a different name, gender, sexual orientation, behaviour etc.
May have no memory of events experienced by alters.
Thought to be brought on by extreme stress.
A very rare disorder, only approx. 1% of patients have been diagnosed.
Some consider it not to be a valid diagnosis. 45
▯ Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety Disorders – Disorders involving fear or nervousness that is irrational, excessive and
Among the most frequently diagnosed disorders.
Affect more than 40 million American 18 and older.
▯ Varieties of Anxiety Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder – Frequently elevated levels of anxiety that are not directed
or limited to any particular situation.
Have difficulty sleeping and concentrating
Struggle to identify the specific reasons why they are anxious.
▯ Panic Disorder
Panic Disorder Repeated episodes of sudden, very intense fear.
Occur in short segments, but can be much more severe.
Key feature is panic attacks – Brief moments of extreme anxiety that include a rush of physical
activity paired with frightening thoughts.
Can lead to agoraphobia, the fear of having a panic attack in publi