Psya02 Notes (ch9 - ch17)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 9: Intelligence, Aptitude and Cognitive Abilities  Intelligent people are descirbed as “brainy”, “wise”, or “sharp”, while “dim,” “slow,” and dense” are less flattering descriptors meant to indicate less intelligence.  Intelligence is the ability to think, understand, reason, and cognitively adapt to and overcome obstacle  Achievement tests measure knowledge and thinking skills that an individual has acquired. (ie. Quizzes and test you take in your college courses are achievement tests)  Aptitude tests are designed to measure an individual’s potential to perform well on a specific range of tasks  Other aptitude tests are designed to test for specific job.  The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (AVSAB) measures aptitude for the entire range of military jobs, from languages and communications to tank and helicopter mechanics.  Achievement tests measure current abilies and aptitude tests predict future performance.  Psychometrics, the measurement of psychological traits and abilites - including personalitty, attitudes and intelligence  Two important concepts in psychometrics and research methods in general, are reliability and validity.  Validity, is the degree to which a test actually measures the trait or ability it is intended to measure. (ie. How do we know that the SAT is really measuring the ability to succeed in college?)  Predictive validity - the degree to which a test predicts future performance.  Relability as the measurement of the degree to which the test produces consitent results.  One method of evaluting reliability is through a construct known as test-retest reliability.  A standardization test is a test that has a set of questions or problems that are administered and scored in a uniform way across large numbers of individual  Norms: statistic that allow individuals to be evaluated relative to a typical or standard score.  Another statistic called the standard deviation measures variability around a mean.  Percentile rank the percentage of scores below a certain point. (ie. A score of 100 has a percentile rank of 0.50, meaning that 50% of the population scores below this level)  A norm is estabilished by giving the test to hundreds of people and then calculating the mean and the standard deviation.  Binet and Theodore simon developed a method of assessing children’s academic achievement at school.  The problem wa easy to see: a new law required all children to attend school, and many of the students who showed up were woefully unprepared.  Mental age: the average or typical test score for a specific chronological age, rather than intelligence. (ie. A 7year old child with a mental age of 7 would be considered average because her mental age matches her chronological age. In contrast, a 10 year old student who was behind at school might have a mental age of 8 year old child’s score)  Stanford-Binet Test as a test intended to measure innate (genetic) intelligence.  Intelligence quotient (IQ) a measurement in which the mental age of an individual is divided by the person’s chronological age and then multipled by 100. (ie. A 10 year old child with a mental age of 7 would have an IQ 7/10 x 100 = 70)  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is the most commonly used intelligence test used on adolescents and aults.  The WAIS provies a single IQ socre for each test taker - the full scale IQ - but also breaks intelligence into a General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI)  The GAI is computed from scores on the verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning indices.  These measures tap into an individuals intellectual abilities without placing so much emphasis on how fast he can solve problems and make decisions.  The CPI, in contrast based on the working memory and processing speend subtests.  Many psychologists reasoned that intelligence is a universal human quality, independent of culture and language.  If a test could find some way to circumvent culture and language, then psychologists would have a fairer, more valid, “culture-free” test.  Raven’s Progressive Matrices, an intelligence test that emphasizes problems that are intended not to be bound to a particular language or culture.  According to Raven, two abilities are key to intelligent behaviour: identifying and extracting important information (deductive reasoning) and then applying it to new situations (reproducing reasoning).  Anthropometrics (literally, “the measurement of people”), a historical term refering to the method of measuring physical and mental variation in humans.  Researchers have found high correlations between working memory capacity and standardized reasoning tests working memory tests measure how well one can hold instructions an dinformation in memory while completing problem-solving tasks.  Working memory capacity is an expression of intelligence because it allows complex reasoning strategies to be used in short term storage.  Working memory processes helps us ignore irrevalent and distracting information.  Intelligence incorporates the ability to think, understand, reason and cognitively adapt to and overcome obstacle.  Spearman began by developing techiques to calculate correlations among multiple measures of mental abilities.  Factor analysis, is a statistical techniques that reveals similarities among a wide variety of items.  For example, different measures such as vocabulary, reasing comprehension, and verbal reasoning might overlap enough to form a “language ability” factor.  General intelligence (abbreviated as “g”) - a concept that intelligence is a basic cognitive trait comprising the ability to learn, reason, and solve problems regardless of their nature.  G is related to a number of outcomes that people seek.  Individual components in an engine or a computire, has one specific function that may be unrelated to another ability’s function  Primary mental abilities, including familiar topics such as reading comprehension, spatial reasoning, numerical ability and memory span.  An individual may experience a head injury or stroke and lose one ability without any loss in other aspects of intelligence.  Savants are individuals with low mental capacity in most domains but extraordinary abilities in other specific areas such ar music, mathematics, or art.  They find people vary a great deal in terms of physical, social, and artistic skills that are not well explained by g.  Triarchic theory of intelligence, a model of intelligence consisting of three domains: analytical intelligence practical intelligence, and creative intelligence.  Analytical intelligence is the ability to address real-world problems that are encountered in daily life.  Creative intelligence is the ability to create new ideas to solve problems.  Howard Gardner proposed the concept of multiple intelligence, a moel claiming that eight different forms ofther intelligence exist, each independent from the others.  Learning styles, the hypothesis that indivudals are fundamentally different in how they best acquire information.  The moest common sets of learning styles, include divisions such as visual, auditory, reading/writing, and kinesthetic/tactile (moving and touching).  Mathematical and verbal abilities are distinct, but they probably share at least some common source.  The abilites to comprehend written text and to produce written text may, in fact, be different intelligence, so both contribute to general intelligence.  Other evidence of gradual rise in IQ test performance comes from changing norms on standardized tests.  Flynn effect, refers to the steady population level increases in intelligence test scores over time.  Individuals of your generation score, on average, higher than your parents would on the same test.  Morton measured skull sizes in an attempt to show racial and ethnic differences in cognitive ability, and assumed that skull size - and thereforewereelligence almost entirely genetically determined.  Behavioural genetics, which examines how genes, environment, and their interaction influence behaviour and cognition.  Behavioural genomics - the study of how specific genes, in their interactions with the environment, influence behaviour.  Collections of genes seem to pool together to influence general cognitive ability.  Gene Knockout (KO) studies involve removing a specific gene thought to be removing the gene by comparing behaviour of animals without the gene with those that have it.  The animal that receives this so-called gene transplant is referred to as a transgenic animal.  Controlled experiments with animals show that growing up in physically and socially stimulating environments results in faster learning and enhaced brain development and functioning compared to growing up in a dull environment  Impossible with human children.  Health and nutrition:  Diet and lifestyle factors influence intelligence.  Children who are healthy attend school more frequently and are able to spend more time on school work.  It is tempting to asume that nutrition leads to better brain functioning.  An alternative would be simply that children who eat well are more prepared to learn during the school dat.  Income:  Income is a relevant environment contributor to intelligence.  On average, children of affluent parents have higher IQs than children living below the poverty level.  High - socioeconomics-status students are more likely to enjoy the advantage of better schools and teachers.  Low-income households face higher stress levels on a day to day basis, and this stress can distract children from school.  Season of birth and birth order:  It appears that children who are the oldest in their class get the most out of school, perhaps because they are, on average, slightly more mature and prepared to learn.  Education:  Health, nutrition, and season of birth are all related to intelligence.  During school, children not only accumulate factual knowledge and learn basic language and math skills, but also become more intelligent as a result.  Relationshi has been observed in numberous places (ie. Such as over long summer breaks.)  Do males and females have unique cognitive skills?  Some researchers argued that sex differences exist in specific cognitive abilities.  Boys and girls are born with roughly equal spatial abilities, so any differences that emerge in childhood and beyond could be due to socialization, other experiences, or genetically controlled maturational process.  If sex differences are due to socialization and stereotypes, then educational institutions and public policymakers may develop strategies to challenge these stereotypes, thereby bringing more women into science.  Racial and socioeconomic similarities and differences:  If the small differences between males and females have implications for education and public policy, then certainly the large differences among races deserve attention.  Meritocracy - a society in which people with the most meritgain the most privilege and status  For one differences in social class, rather than genetic heritage, may actually be responsible for the disparity in intelligence scores.  Summary of group-differences research:  A part of the problem is that these are political as much as psychological issues; they involve moral conflicts about the inherent equality or inequality of people.  Whenever individuals have this level of emotion, it can be difficult to resolve differences in opinion.  Confirmation bias - if you believe something is true, then you are likely to interpret a correlation in a way that supports your conviction.  Ideas about intelligence have some stability across cultures, but there are differences as well.  For example, individuals from the US often distinguish between “book smarts”, the ability to solve comples decisions in daily life.  Entity theory: the belief that intelligence is a fixed characteristic and relatively difficult to change.  Incremental theory: the belief that intelligence can be shaped by experiences, practice, and effort. Chapter 10: Life Span Development  Developemtnal psychology is the study of change and stability of human physical, cognitive, social, and behavioural characterisitcs across the life span.  Psychologists study how social behaviour orginates int he contest of parents- offspring bonds and flourishes and expands to include extended family, close friends, enemies, romantic relationships, and broader social and cultural groups.  Cross-sectional design, is used to measure and compare samples of people at different ages at a given point in time.  Longitudinal design, follows the development of the same set of individuals through time.  A longitudinal study of one group can be costly and time consuming.  Attrition , which occurs when participants stop returning mail or phone calls, become ineligible, or otherwise quit participating.  Cohort effects, which are consequence of being born in a particular year or narrow range of years.  Information about developmental trends can help researchers and clinicians identify what is “normal” for a given age, such as the normal age range for the onset of language or the typical age at which memory decline might be expected.  Rapid changes are explained by a model that views development as a progression of abrupt transitions in physical or mental skills, followed by slower, more gradual change.  Stages are more than increases in size, speed, or amount; they also represent a fundamental shift in the type of abilities.  This understanding can be seen in developmental milestones of motor development (crawling, standing, and walking);  Adults tend to change at a slower, steadier pace - continous change.  A senstive period is a window of time during exposure to a specific type of environmental stimulation is needed for normal development of a specific ability.  Sensitive periods of development are a widespread phenomenon; they have been found in humans and other species for abilities such as depth perception, balance, recognition of parents as well as future potential mates  An individual development does not begin at birth; genetics and environment begin to shape an indivual throughout pregnancy (also gestation).  The gestation stage is the first phase of prenatal development and span from conception to two weeks.  Zygote - a cell formed by the fusion of a sperm and an ovum (egg cell).  As the zygote develops, we can measure its developmental progress by its gestational age  At the gestational age of six days, the zygote, now called a blastocyst, contains 50 and 150 nonspecialized cells.  The blastocyst moves along the fallopian tubes and become implanted in the lining of the uterus.  Soon after implantation, the blastocyst divides into a group of cells that continues developing into an embryo, and another group that frms the placenta, the structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass to the fetus and waste to leave the fetus.  The embryonic stage span weeks two through eight, during which time the embryo begins developing major physical structures such as the heart and nervous system, as well as the beginning of arms, legs, hands, and feet.  The fetal stage spans week eight through birth, during which time the skeletal, organ, and nervous systems become more developed and specialized Fetal brain development  The beginnings of the human brain can be seen during the embryonic stage, between the second and third weeks of gestation.  Cells that are genetically programmed to create the nervous system migrate to their appropriate sites and begin to differentiate into nerve cells.  The first sign of the major divisions of the brain - the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain - are apparent beginning at only 4 weeks gestation.  By 11 weeks of gestation, the differentiations between the cerebral hemispheres, the cerebellum, and the brain stem are apparent.  During the final months of pregnancy, a fatty tissue called myelin builds up around developing nerve cells, a process called myelination.  Myelin insulated nerve cells, enabling them to conduct messages more rapidly and efficiently.  Perterm infants are born at 36 weeks or earlier.  Pregnant woman typically require an almost 20 % increase in energy intake during pregnancy.  Teratogen is a substance, such as a drug, that is capable of producing physical defects.  Alcohol and tobacco can be teratogens if they are consumed at the wrong time.  Fetal alcohol syndrome involves abnormalities in mental functioning, growth, and facial development in the offspring of women who use alcohol during pregnancy.  Reflexed - involuntary muscular reactions to specific types of stimulations,  In contrast to reflexes, the development of motor skills seems to rely more on practices and deliberate effort.  Cross-cultural studies show that children raised in different environments mature at slightly different rates.  The major structure of the brain are all present at birth, but their development is on going through early adulthood.  During childhood, the cerebral cortex thickens, first in the sensory and motor areas, and then in regions involved in perception and eventually higher-order thinking and planning.  Changes include myelination, which begins prenatally accelerates through infancy and childhood.  Synaptogenesis, occurs at blinding speed through infancy and childhood.  Synaptic pruning, the loss of weak nerve cell connection.  Cognitive development - the study of changes in memory, thought, and reasoning processes that occur throughout the life span.  According to Piaget, knowledge accumulates and is modified by two processes - assimilation and accommodation.  In terms of assimilation, children add new info, but interpret is based on what they already know.  Accommodation occurs when children modify their structures based on experiences.  The cognition develops in four distinct stages from birth through early adolescence: the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal operational stage.  Development milestones are an important feature of Piaget’s theory.  Imagination is a type of abstraction - what is in your mind is representation of the objects and people in your physical environment.  Therefore, infants thinking and exploration of the world based on immediate sensory (eg, seeing, touching) and motor (eg, grasping, mouthing)  Sensorimotor stage (spanning birth to two years), referring to the period in which infant’s thinking and understanding about the world is based on sensory experiences and physical actions they perform on objects.  Object permanence, is the ability to understand that objects exist even when they cannot be seen or touched.  Preoperational stage, which spans ages two through seven years, is characterized by understanding of symbols, pretend play and mastery of the concept of conservation.  Conservation, the knowledge that the quantity or amount of an object is not related to the physical arrangement and appearance of that object.  Concrete operational stage (roughly spanning ages 7 to 11 years), when children develop skills in using and manipulating numbers as well as logical thinking.  For example, a child in the concrete operational stage recognizes that if X is more than Y, and Y is more than Z, the X is more than Z (a property called transitivity); this ability to think logically about physical objects transitions into more abstract realms in Piaget’s fourth and final stage of cognitive development.  The formal operational stage (spanning from approximately 11 years of age and into adulthood) involves the development of advanced cognitive processes such as abstract reasoning and hypothetical thinking.  Core knowledge is a view on development proposing that infants have inborn abilities for understanding some kep aspects of their environment.  Habituation refers to a decrease in responding with repeated exposure to an event.  Dishabitution, an increase in responsiveness with the Presentation of a new stimulus.  Zone of proximal development: development is ideal when a child attempts skills and activities that are just beyond what he or she can do alone, but the child has guidance from adults who are attentive to his or her progress.  Scaffolding is the approach to teaching in which the teacher matches guidance to the learner or student’s need.  An attachment is an enduring emotional bond formed between individuals.  Harry Harlow become passionately interested in the topic of bonding and attachment  Lack of bonding does not just affect infant and early childhood behaviors.  Primates that are denied social contact during infancy display abnormal social and sexual behaviors in adulthood as well.  Categories: 1. Secure attachment 2. Insecure attachment A. Disorganized B. Resistant C. Avoidant  Infancy is a phase in which the first attachments form, but attachment continues to occur across the life span and in other contexts, such as in romantic relationships.  Self-awareness, the ability to recognize one’s individuality.  Egocentric , meaning that they perceive and interpret the world in terms of the self.  Piaget stated that children were egocentric through the preoperational phase.  Theory of mind - the ability to recognize the thoughts, beliefs, and expectations of others, to understand that these can be different from one’s own.  False-belief task, is a common method used to study the development of theory of mind.  Temperament, their general emotional reactivity, which is regarded as the root from which several aspects of adults personality grow.  Temperament comes in at least a couple of varieties: a. Limbs b. Back arching c. Crying  As high reactive infants mature, they become timid and react negatively to unfamiliar people, whereas low reactive infants are more likely to show willingness to approach unfamiliar people and situations.  Erik Erikson believed that personality develops in 8 separate stages, each of which involves a particular psychosocial crisis. A. (Infancy) Trust versus mistrust: developing a sense of trust and security towards caregiver. B. (Toddlerhood)Autonomy versus shame and doubt: seeking independence and gaining self-sufficiency C. (Preschool/early childhood) Initiative versus guilt: active exploration of the environment and taking personal initiative. D. (Childhood)Industry versus inferiority: striving to masker tasks and challenges of childhood, particularly those faced in school. E. (Adolescence) Identity versus role confusion: achieving a sense of self and future direction. F. (Young adulthood) Intimacy versus isolation: developing the ability to initiate and maintain intimate relationships. G. (Adulthood) generativity versus stagnation: the focus is on satisfying personal and family needs, as well as contributing to society. H. (aging) ego integrity versus despair: coping with the prospect of death while looking back on life wit a sense of contentment and integrity for accomplishment.  Individuals during this stage development demonstrate rapid and obvious changes in terms of physical growth.  Puberty marks the physical transition from childhood to adolescence, culminating in reproductive maturity.  Puberty begins at the age of 11 for girls and age 13 in boys.  Changes are caused by hormonal activity.  The hypothalamus begins stimulating the release of hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, both of which contribute to the development of sex characteristics in boys and girls.  The resulting changes affect primary sex traits, including the genitals and gonads (testes and ovaries), as well as secondary sex traits (growth in breast size , fat hips, etc)  Menarche - the on set of menstruation.  Nutrition genetics, physical activity levels, and illness are just a few of those contributing factors.  Spermarche, their first ejaculation of sperm.  Takes place approximately at the age of 14.  It is during adolescence that beliefs about right and wrong become increasingly complex and sophisticated.  It is how and why you made your choice.  Kohl-berg examined how people reason about moral dilemmas and identified three stages of moral reasoning.  Post-conventional moral reasoning involves the ability to think abstractly which becomes evident during adolescence.  Knowing that something is right or wrong is very different from feeling that it is right or wrong.  According to the social intuitionist model of morality our moral judgment are not guided solely by reason, but also by our emotional intuitive reactions to a moral dilemma.  Two major changes occurring during adolescence include recognizing what makes each individual unique and the formation of close social relationships that also expand to include romantic and sexual partners.  Identity a self-image and a perception of one’s unique and individual characteristics  Identity versus role confusion; during this time, adolescents and young adults are figuring out their personal identities, their desired careers, and their religious and political orientations. Develops adolescents tend to describe themselves in terms of personal qualities, social qualities and future goals.  An identity crises involves curiosity, questioning, and exploration of different identities.  Identity statuses are the processes and outcomes of identity development that include elements of both crisis and personal commitment.  Four possible identity statuses: A. Identity achievement : consideration of different identities followed by commitment to a particular one. B. Identity diffusion: a reluctance or a refusal to commit to an identity and respond to identity crises. C. Identity foreclosure: a situation in which adolescents do not experience identity crises and commit to the roles and values that are handed down by their parents. D. Identity moratorium: prolonged experimentation with different identities. This can involve delaying commitment to a single identity and frequent identity crises.  Popularity categorized individuals inro two groups: A. Sociometric popularity: individuals who are well known and respected, and who display low levels of aggression. B. Perceived popularity: adolescents who are perceived as popular and may be more well known than sociometrically popular people, buy are not necessarily well liked and are more prone to engage in verbally and physically aggressive ways.  The development of peer relationships marks a significant change in the social development of young people.  How adolescents who are homosexual navigate through the process of recognizing their sexual orientation depends on many factors, including how they are perceived by their family and peers, as well as by themselves.  Identification of a new life stage may be in order - “emerging adulthood”  Adulthood is largely determined by sociocultural norms and expectations about establishing a long term relationship, perhaps having children,buying a house, etc.  Young adulthood pans from 18 to 40 years, middle adulthood from 40 to 65 years, and older adulthood from 65 years onward.  Weight gain, thinning and graying of the hair, and some decline in sensory abilities such as hearing and sight.  One major physical change affecting women at approximately age 50 is menopause, the termination of the menstrual cycle and reproductive ability.  Aging also puts at greater risk for developing serious neurodegenerative conditions, which are characterized by significant loss of nerve cells and nervous system functioning.  Dementia refer to a set of symptoms including mild to serve disruption of mental functioning, memory loss, disorientation, poor judgment, and decision making.  Alzheimer’s disease - a degenerative and terminal condition resulting in severe damage of the entire brain.  In the most advanced stages of Alzheimer;s disease, affected individuals may fail to recognize themselves and develop difficulty with basic bodily process such as swallowing and bowel and bladder control.  Through middle to late adulthood, many people begin to show changes in physical and cognitive abilities.  These changes may become particularly apparent in old age.  Generativity versus stagnation, is characterized by the pursuit to produce something of value for future generations  Authoritative parenting is characterized by the expression of warmth and responsiveness to the needs of children, but also by exercising control over ceratin actions made by children.  Authoritarian parenting emphasizes excessive control over children and less expressive of warmth.  Indulgent permissive parenting are warm but indifferent and do not attempt to control their children, even in positive and helpful ways.  Indifferent uninvolved parenting shows neither warmth nor control towards their children.  Erikson believed that generativity involves having meaningful and productive work, as well as making contribution to future generations.  Emotional well-being is the subjective experience of both positive and negative emotions, and is measured by life satisfaction, happiness, and the balance between negative and positive emotional experiences. Chapter 11: Motivation and Emotion  The study of motivation concerns the physiological and psychological processes underlying the initiation of behaviors that direct organisms towards specific goal.  These initiating factors, or motives, include the thoughts, feelings, sensations, and bodily process that lead to goal-directed behaviour.  Homeostasis, the body’s physiological processes that allow it to maintain consistent internal states in response to the outer environment.  These states include physiological needs such as appropriate body temperature as well as indicators of hunger and thirst.  Drives - the physiological triggers that tell us we may be deprived of something and cause us to seek out what is needed, such as food.  Incentives (or goals) the stimuli we seek to reduce the drives such as social approval and companionship, food, water, and other needs.  Hunger - the motivation to eat - with a growling stomach.  Satiation - the point in a meal when we are no longer motivated to eat.  The on and off switches involved in hunger can be found in a few regions of the hypothalamus.  Researches have found that electrically stimulating the lateral hypothalamus causes rats to begin to eat; serve “on” switch.  In contrast, ventromedial region of the hypothalamus appears to serve as the “off” switch.  The para-ventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, also signals that it is time to stop eating by inhibiting the lateral hypothalamus.  The hypothalamus also takes on the job of monitoring blood chemistry for indicators of the levels of sugars and hormones involved in energy.  Glucose, a sugar that serves as the primary energy source for the brain and the rest of the body.  Highly specialized neurons called glucostats can detect glucose levels in the fluid outside of the cell.  Insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas, helps cells store this circulating glucose for future use.  Ghrelin, s hormone secreted in the stomach that stimulates stomach contractions and appetite.  Another key chemical in regulating hunger is cholecystokinin.  Ordinary sucrose - plain white granulated sugar can stimulate release of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, a brain region associated with the reinforcing effects of the substances such as amphetamines and cocaine  While chemical receptors in the mouth and nose are detecting the tastes and smells of food, touch receptors in the mouth are detecting the textures of the food and relaying this information to the orbitofrontal cortex, which in turn contributes info to the overall sensation of eating.  Tube feeling, a technique used with hospitalized patients who cannot chew or swallow on their own.  Unit bias, the tendency to assume that the unit of sale or portioning is an appropriate amount to consume.  Three main factors: A. Social facilitation: eating more. B. Impression management: eating less. ; minimal eating norm suggests that another aspect of good manners. C. Modeling: eating whatever they eat.  Eating is not just a matter of maintaining homeostasis.  It is best described as a behaviour motivated by biological, social, and individual psychological factors.  Obesity is an disorder of positive energy balance in which energy intake exceeds energy expenditure.  One problem is that both the drive to eat and the incentive value of food increases with deprivation  Anorexia nervosa , an eating disorder that involves (1) self-starvation, (2) intense fear of weight gain and a distorted perception of body image, and (3) a denial of the serious consequences of severely low weight.  Other problems associated with an anorexia include consecutive los of menstrual periods (amenorrhea), and for males a loss of sexual motivation.  Occur during mid and late adolescence  Bulimia nervosa, is an eating disorder that is characterized by periods of food deprivation, binge-eating, and purging.  Occur during late adolescence and young adulthood.  Libido - the motivation for sexual activity and pleasure.  Alfred Kinsey, began his research on human sexuality by interviewing his students about their sexual histories.  Participants were monitored with heart rate and blood pressure equipment, as well as with more peculiar devices such as the penile plethysmopgraph, which are designed to measure blood flow to the genitalia in men and women respectively.  The sexual response cycle, describes the phases of physiological change during sexual activity, which comprises four primary stages: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.  Refractory period, a time period during which erection and orgasm are noy physically possible.  Stimulations of the breasts, nipples, and vaginal areas cause sensory nerves to send signals to the hypothalamus.  The hypothalamus in turn, stimulates the pituitary gland to release a hormone called oxytocin, which plays a role in orgasm and post orgasm physiologica  In males, this may include erectile dysfunction (ED) - the inability to achieve or maintain an erection.  ED is often caused by cardiovascular problems such as hypertension.  For females, physiological problems may lad to lack of arousal or painful intercourse.  Cybersex - that is the use of the internet and computer equipment for sending sexually explicit images and messages to a partner.  Sexual orientation is a consistent preference for sexual relations with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), same sex (homosexuality), or either sex (bisexuality).  E.g., desire, emotions, identification  Researchers have also been intrigued by findings suggesting that a band of nerve fibers connecting the left and right brain hemispheres, called the anterior commissure, is larger in homosexual men and women than in heterosexual men.  Testosterone is a hormone that is involved in the development of sex characteristics and the motivation of sexual behaviour.  An intriguing hypothesis for why this pattern emerges has to do with an expecting mother’s immune system  At birth, some mixing of blood between mother and newborn occurs.  If the newborn is male, the mother is this exposed to proteins that are specific to males, which triggers an immune response.  Everyone acknowledges that humans require satisfaction of at least a few basic needs for survival, such as adequate food, water, clothing, and shelter.  Other necessities also exists, beginning with the need to have meaningful social relationships and continuing with uniquely human needs for self-esteem and self-actualization.  Abraham Maslow:  At the base of the “hierarchy of needs: are the physiological motives that must be satisfied before all others are considered.  After these needs are addressed, an individual may turn to higher-level needs such as the need for love and belonging, self-esteem, and achievement.  The need to belong (sometimes known as affiliation motivation) is the motivation to maintain relationships that involve pleasant feelings such as warmth, affection , appreciation , and mutual concerns for each person’s well being.  Social connectedness is a good predictor of overall health , whereas loneliness is a risk factor for illnesses such as heart disease and cancer.  Terror management theory is a psychological perspective asserting that the human fear of mortality motivates behaviour, particularly those that preserve self-esteem and sense of belonging.  Achievement motivation is the drive to perform at high levels and to accomplish significant goals.  Mastery motives are motives that reflect a desire to understand or overcome a challenge.  Performance motives are generally those motives that are geared toward gaining rewards or public recognition.  Approach goals are enjoyable and pleasant incentives that we are drawn towards, such as praise or financial reward.  Avoidance goals, are unpleasant outcomes such as shame, embarrassment, or emotional pains, which we try to avoid.  Students to procrastinate when they are working on avoidance goal.  Emotion as a psychological experience involving three components: (1) subjective thoughts and experiences with (2) accompanying patterns of physical arousal and (3) characteristics behavioral expressions  Autonomic response system, which conveys info between the spinal cord and the blood vessels, glands and smooth muscles of the body.  Both the ANS and specialized regions of the brain are interconnected in complex ways, giving rise to our experience of emotions.  Sympathetic nervous system, which generally increases your energy and alertness to enable you to handle frightening or dangerous situations - that is, it activates the fight or flight situation.  Increase in heart rate, respiration, sweat and alertness.  Parasympathetic nervous system, typically uses energy more sparingly, bringing your heart rate and respiration back to resting rates and focusing on non emergency tasks, such as digestion.  Limbic system is critical to emotional processing.  It includes the hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdale, and various cortical regions.  The amygdale is of particular interest to scientists who study emotion for 2 reasons:  It is involved in assessing and interpreting situations to determine which types of emotions are appropriate  It seems to connect the perception or interpretation of these situations to brain regions that stimulate the physiological responses required for actions.  Sensory information first goes through the thalamus, and then may go directly to the amygdale, which immediately stimulates hormonal and autonomic responses; called fast pathway.  The thalamus relays information to the sensory areas of the brain, such as those devoted to vision, which then stimulate the amygdale and physiological responses; called slow pathway.  According to the James Lange theory of emotion, our physiological reactions to stimuli precede and give rise to the emotional experience (fear).  Sense of fear is determined by how your body responds.  Cannon Bard theory of emotion, which states that emotion such as fear or happiness occur simultaneously with their physiological components.  facial feedback hypothesis: if emotional expressions influences subjective emotional experiences, then the act or forming a facial expression should elicit the specific, corresponding emotion  Two factory theory of emotion holds that patterns of physical arousal and the cognitive labels we attach to them form the basis of our emotional experiences.  Combining the two factors, the physical and cognitive, gives the rise to the emotional experience of fear.  Emotional dialects - which are variations across cultures in how common emotions are expressed.  Display rules refers to the unwritten expectations we have regarding when it is appropriate to show a certain emotion. Chapter 12: Personality  Personality is a characteristic pattern of thinking, interacting, and reacting that is unique to each individual, and remains relatively consistent over time and situation.  Idiographic approach, meaning that they focus on creating detailed descriptions of individuals and their unique personality characteristics.  What makes the idiographic approach distinct is that is it person centered, and might include how an individual perceives his or her own personality, as well as how others perceive that individual’s personality.  Nomothetic approach, which examines personality in large groups of people, with the aim of making generalizations about personality structure.  One advantage is that it allows psychologists to ask questions about the genetic and cultural basis of personality traits.  Personality traits, which are labels applied to specific attributes of personality such as “shy,” “cheerful,” “outgoing,” and “adventurous.”  Factor analysis reveals statistical similarities among a wide variety of items.  The factors derived from this analysis comprise broad personality trait labels, such as extra-version, that psychologists use when measuring personality.  18,000 words to describe an individual’s physical and psychological attributes.  Narrowed the 18,000 to 16 words.  Five factor model (or just the big five personality factors) which is a trait-based approach to personality measurement that includes extraversion, emotional stability (also referred to by the opposite quality, neuroticism), conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness.  Extraverted people tend to report happier moods than do introverts  Temperament refers to personality-like attributes that appear to be present at birth, and includes such characteristics as activity levelm mood, attention span.  State is a temporary physical or psychological engagement that influences behaviour.  4 general aspects of situations and reduced them to influence our behaviour: - Locations (eg., being at work, school, or home) - Associations (eg., being with friends, alone, or with family) - Activities (eg., awake, rushed, studying) - Subjective states (eg., mad, sick, drunk , happy)  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), a multiple-question personality inventory that is used to characterize both normal personality dimensions and profiles that fit various psychological disorders.  Schizophrenia and psyhopathic deviancy are included in the MMPI.  The main purpose of the MMPI is to discriminate between “normal” and “abnormal” characteristics.  Two additional methods for measuring personality include interviews and behavioural assessments.  When using interviews, a psychologist asks a structured set of questions and analyzes the responses to create an individual profile.  When using behavioural assessments, a psychologist will create a personality profile by observing an individual in a specific context or situation.  Fourth method includes projective tests.  The fundamental difference between Bandura’s theory and a strict behaviorist approach is that Bandura sees people as actively shaping and determining their environments, rather than the other way.  Reciprocal determinism - the idea that behavior, internal (personal factors, and external factors interact to determine one another, and that our personalities are based on interactions among these three aspects.  The study of personality is the study of human nature.  One major challenge to doing cross cultural work is finding a standardized measure of personality that can be translated and administered in languages other than english.  Individualism refers to the view that personal identity, goals, and attributes are of greater value than group identity, goals, and attributes.  Collectivism is a view that places greater value on defining the self in terms of group membership and goals.  Twin studies using the Big Five have found that identical (monozygotic) twins show a stronger correlation for each personlity trait tha do fraternal (dizygotic) twins.  Personality tends to vary from one individual to the next, and situational fators are importat in determining how we behave.  They - and the rest of us - select environments that suit their personality characteristics and actively avoid those that migh lead to discomfort.  Assortative mating - choosing sexual partners who are similar to the individual doing the searching.  The left and right hemisphere differ in the processing of positive and negative emotions.  Activity in the left prefrontal cortex is associated with positive responses, whereas activity in the right prefontal cortex is associated with responding to threats and unfamiliar stimuli.  Psychodynamic theories focus on how personality arises through complex interactions involving conscious and unconscious proesses that occur from early development on through adulthood.  Psychodynamic psychologists also address mental health and therapies.  Began with Sigmund Freud.  Few key observations. - unconscious thoughts, memories, and emotions operate simultaneously and are major influences on our behaviour. - Personality takes shape in early childhood and children learn to regulate their emotions during this period of development - Mental representations of the self and others shape how the individual acts.  Sigmund theorized that three hypothetical, interacting parts exist: the id, the ego, and the superego.  Id represents a collection of basic biological drives, including those direted towards sex and aggression. - The id was fuel by an energy called libido. - The id motivates people to seek out experiences that bring pleasure, with little regard for the appropriateness or consequences of their realization.  The ego is the component of personality that keeps the impulses of the id in check.  Superego, was thought to develop during our upbringingl t serves as an inner voice we hear when we shame ourselves for acting inappropriately or lavish praise on ourselves for doing.  Intrapsyhi conflict is one of the hallmarks of freud’s theory.  Psychoanalyst - someone who approaches therapy from a psychodynamic perspective.  The unconscious mnid includes impulses and drives that we are not directly aware of, whereas conscious thoughts are those for which you are aware.  Defense mechanisms, which are unconscious strategies that ego uses to reduce or avoid anxiety, guilt, and other unpleasant.  Fixation, in which an individual becomes preoccupied with obtaining the pleasure associated with a particular stage.  Projective tests are personality tests in which ambiguous images are presented to an individual to elicit responses that reflect unconscious desires or conflicts.  Rorschach inkblot test, in which subjects are asked to describe what they see on the inkblot, and psychologists attempt to interpret what the subject projects onto the stimulus by using a standardized scoring and interpretation method.  Thematic apperception test (TAT), which asks respondents to tell a story about a series of 31 pictures involving ambiguous interpersonal situations.  Two particular important concepts come into play when it omes to evaluating psychological testing: reliability and validity. - the reliability of a test refers to how consistently it yields similar results. - the validity of a test refers to how well the test measures what it is intended.  Analytical psychology, a branch of psychology that describes personality as it relates to what are called unconscious arhetypes.  Collective unconscious - a colletion of memories that can be traced to our ancestral past.  Inferiority complex, an abnormal personality that results from struggling with feelings of inferiority in one’s soial environment.  Self-actualization, which involves reaching our fullest potential.  Humanistic psychology that emphasized the unique and positive qualities of human experiences and potential.  Personcentered perspective, people are basically good, and given the right environment their personality will develop fully and normally.  Self-concept-that is, the collection of feelings and beliefs we have about who we are. Chapter 13: Psychological Disorder  Medical model: usuing our undertanding of medical condtions to think about the psyhological conditions.  Psychological factors include persitent megative beliefs about the self and feelings hopelessness  Social factors such as improverished neighborhoods and stressful family problems.  Abnormal psychology is the psychological study of mental illness.  The difference between these two “unusual” individuals is that ther pesron who harms himself is exhibiting maladaptive behaviour, or behaviour that hinders a person’s ability to function in work, school, relationships or society.  To ditinguish between the abnormal and the unusual. - the behaviour casues distress to self or other. - the behaviour impairs the ability to function in day-to-day activities. - the behaviour increases the risk of injury, death, legal problems or punishment for breaking rules or other detrimental consequences.  Diagnostic and statistial manual for mental disorder (DSM-IV) the manual that extablishes criteria for the diagnosis of mental disorders.  Etiology, or the origins or causes of symptoms.  Post-traumatic stree disorder (PTSD)  Dimensional views of psychological distorders becaue the normal-abnormal distinction is a matter of degree.  Categorical view of psychological disroders regards different mental onditions as separate types; difference between normal and abnormal functioning are kind, rather than degree.  Down syndrome is an example of a categorical disorder.  Two mental health issues that affect the public sphere include the insanity defense and the public perception of individuals who have mental illness.  Insanity is a legal concept and is not diretly related to psychological diagnoses and treatment.  Insanity defence is the legal strategy of claiming that a defendant was unable to differentiate between right and wrong when the criminal at was committed.  Personality disorder as particularly unusual patterns of behaviour for one’s ulture that are maladaptive, distressing to oneself or others and resistant to change.  The DSM-IV identifies clusters of personality disorders involving (1) odd or eccenttric behaviour, (2) dramatic, emotional, and errati behaviour; and (3) anxious, fearful and inhibited behaviour.  Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by intense extremes between positive and negative emotions, an unstable sense of self, impulsivitity, and difficulty social relationships.  Self-injury which may involve utting or burning oneself.  Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is characterizied by an inflated and admiration, as well as intense self-doubt and fear of abandonment.  Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) which is characterized by excessive attention seeking and dramatic behaviour.  Antisocial personality disorder (APD) refers to a condition marked by a habitual pattern of willingly violating others personal rights, with very little sign of empathy or remorse.  Psychological disorders: - conduct disorders have difficulty learning tasks that require decision making and following of complex rules. - Reduced activity in the frontal lobes. - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)  Socicultural factors  Biological factors.  Comorbidity is the presence of two disroders simultaneously, or the presence of a second disorder that affects the one being treated.  Dissociative experiences because they are characterized by a sense of separation-a dissociation-between you and your surroundings.  Dissociative disorder, a category of mental disorders characterized by a split between conscious awareness from feelings, cognition, memory, and identity. - dissociative fugue - depersonalization disorder - dissociative amnesia  Dissociative identity disorder (DID) in which a person claims that his or her identity has split into one or more distint alter personalities, or alters.  Anxiety disorders are a category of disorders involving fear or nervousess that is excessive, irrational, and maladaptive.  Fight-or-flight response.  The primary symptoms of all anxiety disorders include the basic feelings of anxiety.  Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) involves frequently elevated levels of axiety that are not directed at or limited to any particularsituation.  Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder marked by repeated episodes of sudden, very instense fear.  Agoraphobia, an intense fear of having a panic attack or lower-level panic symptoms in public.  Phobia is a severe, irrational fear of a very specific object or situation.  Specific phobia which involve an intense fear of an object, activity, or an organism.  Social anxiety disorder is an irrational fear of being observed, evaluated, or embarrassed in public.  Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) a disroder characterized by unwanted, inappropriate, and persistent thoughts (obsession); repetitive stereotyped behaviours (compulsions); or a combination of the two.  Mood disroder such as bipolar disorder and depression are particular common.  Rates of depression are twice as high among women as among men, and three times as high among people living in poverty.  Major depression is a disorder marked by prolonged periods of sadness, feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness, social withdrawal, and cognitive and physical sluggishness.  Bipolar disorder is characterized by extreme highs and lows in moods, motivation and energy.  Bipolar disorder involvesdepression at one end and mania at the other end.  Two primary regions of interest related to depression: (1) the limbic system, which is active in emotional responses and processing, and (2) the dorasal (back) of the frontal cortex, which generally plays a role in controlling thoughts and concentrating.  Schizophrenia refers to a collection of disorders characterized by chronic and significant breaks from reality, lack of integration of thoughts and emotions, and serious problems with attention and memory.  Hallucinations, which are false perceptions of reality such as hearing internal voices.  Delusion, which are false beliefs about reality.  Paranoid schizophrenia: symptoms include delusional beliefs that one is being follwed, watched, or persecuted, and may also include delusions of grandeux.  Disorganized schizophrenia: symptoms include episodes in which a person remians mute and immobile-sometimes in bizzare positions.  Catatonic schizophrenia: this category inludes individuals who show up a combination of symptoms from more than one type of schizophrenia.  Residual schizophrenia: this category reflects individuals who show some symptoms of schizophrenia but are either in transition to a full-blown episode or in remission.  Positive symptoms refer to behaviours that should not occur, such as confused and paranoid thinking and inappropriate emotional reactions.  Negative symptoms involve the absence of adaptive behaviour.  Social interaction is difficulty for many people with schizophrenia.  The brains of people with schizophrenia are not just different in size, they also function differently.  Lower level of activity in their frontal lobes.  The excess dopamine may be involves in producing the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinatioons and delusions, but not the negative symptoms such as flatened emotion and lack of speech.  Glutamate appears to be underactive in brain regions.  Neurodevelopment hypothesis - the hypothesis that irregular biologial and environmental fators interact during infant and child development to produce schizophrenia symptoms. Chapter 14: Therapies -Back in the day, had extreme ways of dealing with mental illness -Witch Doctors likely celebrated for their mental illness -Were prophets schizophrenic? But seen as prophets because they were “speaking to angels”, etc. -Evidence of cutting a hole in people’s heads. If someone was acting crazy, “heard voices in their heads”, they were taken literally. To treat another entity in someone’s heads, they would cut a hole and le
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